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William K. Harris, Joyce G. Latimer, John F. Freeborn, Margaret Aiken and Holly L. Scoggins

container-grown plants from damaging winter temperatures ( Smith, 2004 ). Several cultural factors, such as the use of substrate moisture content ( Smith, 2004 ), protective covers ( Perry, 1998 ), and fertility level ( Bilderback and Bir, 2007 ) have been

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Crysta N. Harris, Ryan W. Dickson, Paul R. Fisher, Brian E. Jackson and Anissa M. Poleatewich

conducted to evaluate plant growth and N level for peat substrate amended with (by volume) 30% expanded pine ( Pinus sp.) wood fiber during a production and simulated consumer retail phase with container-grown petunia ( Petunia × hybrida ). Substrates

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David R. Sandrock, Anita N. Azarenko and Timothy L. Righetti

Nitrogen accumulation patterns were established for Weigela florida (Bunge.) A. DC. `Red Prince' (fast growth rate) and Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. `Compactus' (slow growth rate). From these, daily and biweekly N delivery schedules were designed to match N supply with N accumulation patterns of each taxon. Delivery schedules were sliding scales in that total N applied was controlled by independent increases (or decreases) of N concentration and solution volume. Daily and biweekly N delivery schedules were tested against a constant N rate (200 mg·L-1) and Osmocote 18N-2.6P-9.9K (The Scotts Co., Marysville, Ohio). Plants were grown in 3.8-L containers in 7 douglas fir bark: 2 sphagnum peatmoss: 1 silica sand (0.65 mm; by volume) outdoors in full sun on a gravel pad for 142 d. Within each taxon, Weigela and Euonymus grown with sliding-scale N fertilization schedules had similar total dry weights, leaf areas, and total plant N contents to plants grown with a constant N rate (200 mg·L-1) or Osmocote 18N-2.6P-9.9K. Sliding-scale liquid fertilization based on plant N requirements introduced less total N to the production cycle and resulted in higher N uptake efficiency than fertilization with a constant N rate of 200 mg·L-1. In general, liquid N fertilizer treatments resulted in plants with higher shoot to root ratios than plants treated with Osmocote 18N-2.6P-9.9K. Weigela and Euonymus treated with biweekly schedules were similar to plants treated with daily schedules (same total amount of N delivered with each treatment).

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Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, Ted C. Yap and William C. Fonteno

containers and additional understanding of the factors that affect it are critical for improving overall growth and quality of container-grown plants. Developing new techniques to study, observe, and measure root growth of seedlings and small-sized plants

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Nastaran Basiri Jahromi, Forbes Walker, Amy Fulcher, James Altland and Wesley C. Wright

HortScience. 47 1136 1140 Altland, J.E. Locke, J.C. 2013 Gasified rice hull biochar is a source of phosphorus and potassium for container-grown plants J. Environ. Hort. 31 138 144 Altland, J.E. Locke, J.C. 2017 High rates of gasified rice hull biochar affect

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Jeffery K. Iles, Nancy Howard Agnew, Henry G. Taber and Nick E. Christians

A major limiting factor in producing container-grown herbaceous perennials is low-temperature injury to cold sensitive roots and crowns during above ground winter storage. Growers and retailers of these plants understand the need for protection systems, yet specific recommendations are unavailable. The ability of several structureless systems to moderate temperature and protect 16 species of container-grown herbaceous perennials from low-temperature injury was investigated. Two light-excluding treatments consisting of 30 cm of straw between 2 layers of 4 mil white copolymer, and 18 cm deep in-ground beds protected with 1 layer of 4 mil white copolymer and 30 cm of woodchips provided the greatest moderation of winter low and early spring high temperatures but resulted in severe etiolation among test plants, A bonded white copolymer-microform overwintering blanket with translucent properties provided comparable plant survival, and prevented etiolated growth allowing plants to grow rapidly after uncovering, despite dramatic temperature extremes observed beneath this cover.

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Kandy L. Walker and David J. Williams

Experiments in two consecutive years indicated that barnyardgrass (Echirzochloa crusgalli L.), large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), and giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) reduced growth of container-grown `San Jose' juniper (Juniperus chinensis L. `San Jose') 83 days after transplanting grass seedlings into the containers. Grass densities of one to six weeds per container reduced `San Jose' juniper growth. By 83 days of grass interference, juniper shoot dry weight was reduced as much as 43% by six weeds per container.

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Pachanoor S. Devanand, C. Thomas Chao*, Jianjn Chen and Richard J. Henny

Anthurium is the largest genus in the family Araceae, consisting of about 1000 species. Anthuriums are valued for their colorful spathes and traditionally used as cut flowers. With the introduction of compact cultivars through breeding, a series of container-grown cultivars have been released and widely produced as flowering foliage plants. However, limited information is available about genetic relatedness among these container-grown cultivars. This study analyzed genetic relationships of 58 cultivars using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers with near infrared fluorescence labeled primers. Forty-eight EcoR I + 2/Mse I + 3 primer set combinations were screened from which six primer sets were selected and used in this investigation. Each selected primer set generated 94 to 115 scorable fragments. A total of 647 AFLP fragments were detected of which 401 were polymorphic (67%). All cultivars were clearly differentiated by their AFLP finger-prints. A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) technique and a principal coordinated analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the relationships. The 58 cultivars were divided into three clusters; clusters I, II, and III had 40, 10, and 8 cultivars, respectively. Most commonly grown cultivars were positioned in cluster I, where had Jaccard similarity coefficients among them ranged from 0.7 to 0.98. Eighteen of the 40 shared Jaccard similarity coefficient of 0.8 or higher, indicating that genetic diversity for cultivated container-grown Anthurium is needed.

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James E. Klett and David Staats

Herbicides were applied to container grown landscape plants and evaluated on the basis of weed control, phytotoxicity, and effect on plant growth. Three preemergent herbicides were applied including: Oxadiazon (Ronstar) at 4.54 and 9.08 kg/ha, Oxyfluorfen + Oryzalin (Rout) at 3.41 and 6.81 kg/ha and Oryzalin (Surflan) at 2.27 and 4.54 kg/ha. There was also a weedy and non-weedy control. The plant species included: Syringa vulgaris (Common Lilac), Wisteria sinensis (Chinese Wisteria), Phlox paniculata (Garden Phlox) and Dahlia hybrid (Garden Dahlia). They were all grown in number one containers in a media of soil, spaghnum peat moss, and plaster sand (1:2:1 by volume). All herbicides tested controlled weeds effectively with no phytotoxicity except with Phlox paniculata. Oryzalin resulted in a phytotoxic effect on Phlox paniculata at both the 1x and 2x rates.

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Bert T. Swanson, James B. Calkins, Daniel G. Krueger and Theresa L. Stockdale

Media fertility is a critical factor in the successful production of container grown plants. Fertility treatments including fertigation and slow-release fertilizers (topdressed and incorporated) were compared. Fertility treatments were studied over a two-year period on a variety of deciduous and evergreen plant materials. Plant growth was quantified based on height, volume, branching, and quality. Soil fertility levels based on leachates were followed during the study. Nutrient release for incorporated fertilizers tested was variable although less so than when the same fertilizers were topdressed. Fertility treatment effects were species-dependent. Several incorporated, slow-release fertilizers, especially those high in nitrogen (Sierra 17-6-10, Sierra High N 24-4-6, Woodace Briquettes 23-2-0, Woodace 21-4-10), show promise for use in two-year container production systems.