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Allan F. Brown, Gad G. Yousef, Ivette Guzman, Kranthi K. Chebrolu, Dennis J. Werner, Mike Parker, Ksenija Gasic and Penelope Perkins-Veazie

neochlorogenic acid), flavan 3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins), flavonols (quercetin 3-glucoside and 3-rutinoside), and ANC (cyanidin 3-glucoside and 3-rutinoside) ( Tomás-Barberán et al., 2001 ). The carotenoid profile of peach includes β - carotene, β

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Wenhe Lu, Kathleen Haynes, Eugene Wiley and Beverly Clevidence

The yellow pigment in potato (Solanum L. sp.) tuber flesh is caused by various carotenoids that may protect against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and macular eye degeneration. The objectives of this research were to 1) identify and quantify the carotenoids present in 11 diploid clones from a hybrid population of Solanum phureja ssp. phureja Juz. & Bukasov-S. stenotomum ssp. stenotomum Juz. & Bukasov and two tetraploid potato cultivars (the yellow-fleshed `Yukon Gold' and the white-fleshed `Superior'), and 2) determine the relationship between tuber yellow intensity and carotenoid content. Yellow intensity was measured by a colorimeter programmed to calculate a yellowness index, YI E-313. Carotenoid analyses were performed on an automated high-performance liquid chromatography system with software for integration and quantitation with detection at 450 nm using a diode array detector. Six major carotenoids were detected: neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein-5,6-epoxide, lutein, zeaxanthin, and an unknown carotenoid. Total carotenoid content in the yellow-fleshed diploid clones was 3 to 13 times higher than `Yukon Gold' and 4 to 22 times higher than `Superior'. Both total and individual carotenoid contents were positively correlated with tuber yellow intensity. There was an exponential relationship between total carotenoid content and tuber yellow intensity. This suggests that selecting for more intense yellow flesh will result in higher levels of carotenoids. These specific diploid clones were selected for this study because they produced at least five percent 2n pollen; they have the potential to make significant contributions to improving the nutritional status of tetraploid potatoes through 4x-2x hybridizations.

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Megan J. Bowman, David K. Willis and Philipp W. Simon

Differential expression of genes in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway serves as a regulatory mechanism for carotenoid accumulation in diverse plant species such as tomato [ Solanum lycopersicum ( Fray and Grierson, 1993 ; Ronen et al., 2000

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J.A. Kirkpatrick, J.B. Murphy and T.E. Morelock

Interest in the health benefits of vegetables prompted an investigation of the levels of carotenoids in commercial varieties and UA breeding lines of spinach. Plant carotenoids perform a critical function as antioxidants, providing protection against a variety of reactive oxygen species generated primarily during photosynthesis. When ingested by humans, these compounds maintain their antioxidant activities and are receiving considerable attention in relation to multiple health benefits, including cancer prevention. While the best-known and most-studied carotenoid is beta-carotene, other carotenoids are now receiving attention due to their higher antioxidant activity compared to beta-carotene. Most dark-green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and kale, are relatively high in carotenoids, especially lutein. In this study, significant differences in average content of both lutein and beta-carotene were found between genetic lines of spinach. Some lines exhibited considerable variation between plants, while others were highly uniform. There was a very high correlation (r 2 = 0.96) between lutein content and betacarotene content. The significant difference between spinach lines suggests that improvement of general carotenoid antioxidants and lutein could be obtained through a breeding program.

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Mark G. Lefsrud, Dean A. Kopsell and Carl E. Sams

Plant pigments have specific wavelength absorption patterns known as absorption spectra. Biosynthetic wavelengths for the production of plant pigments [chlorophylls (Chl) and carotenoids] are referred to as action spectra. Specifically, Chl a

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Graham H. Barry and Smit le Roux

chlorophyll and increased carotenoid concentrations in the flavedo of the rind ( Eilati et al., 1969 ; Goldschmidt, 1988 ). These changes in rind pigments are mainly the result of the senescence of chlorophyllous tissue in the flavedo and result in the

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Joshua K. Craver, Joshua R. Gerovac, Roberto G. Lopez and Dean A. Kopsell

their antioxidant capacity ( Brazaitytė et al., 2015 ; Podsędek, 2007 ). Although the content and composition of these antioxidants varies based on species, phenolic compounds, vitamins C and E, glucosinolates, and carotenoids have generally been linked

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Laura Rodriguez-Uribe, Luz Hernandez, James P. Kilcrease, Stephanie Walker and Mary A. O’Connell

dihydrocapsaicin ( Bosland, 1996 ; Kozukue et al., 2005 ; Wahyuni et al., 2011 ). The red, orange, or yellow color of the mature chile fruit is the result of the accumulation of cultivar- or variety-specific mixtures of carotenoids in the pericarp. In red fruit

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Xianzhi Zhou, Yufen Wu, Sheng Chen, Yang Chen, Weiguang Zhang, Xintao Sun and Yijie Zhao

., 2010 ; Crinò et al., 2007 ; Savvas et al., 2010 ; Schwarz et al., 2010 ). Moreover, quality parameters such as acidity, soluble solids contents (SSC), sugar, titratable acid, vitamin C, flavor, aroma, color, carotenoid content, amino acid content

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Baniekal Hiremath Gangadhar, Raghvendra Kumar Mishra, Gobinath Pandian and Se Won Park

10 min and the resulting supernatants were used for estimation of soluble protein contents. Protein contents were assayed by Lowry et al. (1951) method with bovine serum albumin as the standard. Estimation of chlorophyll and carotenoid content. The