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Adam Dale, Don C. Elfving and Craig K. Chandler

In greenhouse and field studies, benzyladenine (BA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) applied together as a foliar spray increased runner production in dayneutral strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) but not when applied separately. Runner production increased linearly with increased BA concentration to 1800 mg·L–1. At high dosages, GA3-treated plants produced elongated internodes that, in the field, led to fewer daughter plants. In Florida, daughter plants derived from plants sprayed with the growth regulators increased yield by up to 10% in fruiting experiments. To induce runnering in the field and greenhouse, a treatment with BA at 1200 mg·L–1 and GA3 at 300 mg·L–1 is recommended. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purine-6-amine (benzyladenine); gibberellic acid A3; gibberellic acids A4 and A7.

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D.C. Elfving and R.A. Cline

Postbloom applications of benzyladenine (BA) thinned young fruitlets of mature `Empire' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) as well as or better than NAA or carbaryl (CB). BA increased fruit weight more effectively than either NAA or CB. Promalin (PR) was less effective than BA for both thinning and fruit-weight increase. In 1990, both BA and PR reduced fruit set up to 29 days after full bloom, but PR showed less thinning activity. BA and NAA produced independent and additive thinning responses when tank-mixed. Effects of all thinners on foliar mineral-nutrient concentrations were associated with changes in fruit load. BA increased return bloom as much or more than NAA or CB. PR did not affect return bloom. Chemical names used: N -(phenylmethyl)-1 H -purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; BA plus gibberellins A, and A, [Promalin (PR)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate [carbaryl (CB)].

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Eleanor W. Hoffman, Dirk U. Bellstedt and Gerard Jacobs

in May (late autumn) resulted in greater floral initiation compared with any of the other treatments. Table 1. Effect of benzyladenine (BA) as ABG-3062 [2% BA (w/w); Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL] on buds sprouted, flowering, and

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James M. Garner, Gary J. Keever, D. Joseph Eakes and J. Raymond Kessler

A foliar spray of 0, 1250, 2500, or 3750 mg benzyladenine (BA)/L was applied to 10 Hosta Tratt. (Funkia K. Spreng; Niobe Salisb.) cultivars. Response to BA treatment was cultivar dependent, with BA promoting offset formation in half of the cultivars. Compared to the control, increase in offsets produced by cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/L ranged from 116% in `Francee' to 3500% in `Francis Williams' at 30 days after treatment (DAT) and from 150% in `Royal Standard' to 2250% in `Francis Williams' at 60 DAT. Offset stage of development, as indicated by the number of unfurled leaves, was also cultivar- and BA-dependent. All cultivars treated with 3750 mg BA/L had an average of three or more unfurled leaves at 60 DAT, while among control plants, 40% of cultivars averaged fewer than three unfurled leaves. No phytotoxic symptoms were noted in any cultivar, and plant size was either increased or not affected by BA treatment. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1H-purin-6-amine (benzyladenine; BA).

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Iftikhar Ahmad, John M. Dole and Bruno T. Favero

gibberellin plus benzyladenine have also been tested for preventing leaf chlorosis, such as Provide or Promalin (Abbot Chemical Co., North Chicago, IL) and Fascination (Valent BioSciences Corp., Libertyville, IL) ( Han, 1997 , Leonard and Nell, 2004

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D.J. Cantliffe

When lettuce seeds are imbibed and subjected to high temperature for periods of 72 h or more, dormancy known as thermodormaney is induced. Priming of three cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds in 1% (w/v) K3 P O4 for 20 h in the dark reduced thermodormaney. Addition of 100 mg 6-benzyladenine (BA)/liter to the priming solution increased germination in petri dishes at 35C in `Green Lakes' from 65% in seeds that were primed without BA, to 92% when BA was added to the priming solution. In `South Bay' these percentages were 24% and 86%, respectively. Seedling emergence was improved in other lots of `Green Lakes' and `Montello' using soilless mix.

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Duane W. Greene, Wesley R. Autio and Paul Miller

Postbloom sprays of BA thinned `McIntosh', `Delicious', `Golden Delicious', `Mutsu, `Empire', and `Abas' apples. BA at 75 to 100 mg·liter-1 was equal to NAA at 6 to 7.5 mg·liter-1 or carbaryl at 600 to 800 mg·liter-1. BA increased fruit size, flesh firmness, and soluble solids concentration (SSC) on all cultivars evaluated. Since BA is applied during the time when cell division is occurring, it is concluded that the increased fruit size and flesh firmness were due to Increased cell numbers. Increased SSC was not due solely to increased leaf: fruit ratio. Thinning with BA was additive with other chemical thinners and no interactions were found on fruit abscission. In most eases, BA increased return bloom. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)1H-purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate (carbaryl); butanedioic acid mono(2,2dimethylhydrazide (daminozide); (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon).

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Robin A. Cohen and Duane W. Greene

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of growth regulator application on cytokinin levels in developing apple leaves. In experiment 1, gibberellin GA4/7 (100 mg·liter-1) and benzyladenine (BA, 100 mg·liter-1) were applied alone or in combination as a foliar spray to `Golden Delicious' 7 days after full bloom. In experiment 2, BA was applied at 50 or 100 mg·liter-1 as a foliar spray to `Morespur McIntosh' 18 days after full bloom. Trans-zeatin ribosidelike (t-ZR) levels were determined by immunoassay. In experiment 1, GA1/7 had no effect and BA increased t-ZR-like levels. In experiment 2, BA increased t-ZR levels quadratically with application rate. The increase in endogenous cytokinin levels with BA treatment occured within 2 hours. Initially, t-ZR-like levels were 47 times higher in the BA (100 mg·liter-1) treated leaves as compared to check leaves. Over the next 8 days, t-ZR-like content in treated leaves decreased in a cubic manner.

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Zhongjie Ji, James J. Camberato, Cankui Zhang and Yiwei Jiang

regulation of plant developmental processes, signaling networks, and biotic and abiotic stress responses of plants ( McSteen and Zhao, 2008 ; Upreti and Sharma, 2016 ). 6-benzyladenine (6-BA) is a synthetic compound of cytokinin that plays multiple

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Jure Kolarič, Irena Mavrič Pleško, Stanislav Tojnko and Matej Stopar

significant differences among means drawn on the same vertical order. Means separation was done by Duncan's multiple range test ( P < 0.05). NAA = naphthaleneacetic acid; BA = 6-benzyladenine. Ethylene evolution was measured before treatment on the day of