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Charles R. Brown, David Culley, Meredith Bonierbale and Walter Amorós

subset of the extant variation in native Andean cultivars. These colors are primarily red and blue anthocyanins that are present in skin or flesh to varying degrees and yellow to orange carotenoids in the flesh that display a broad variation in content

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Craig S. Charron, Steven J. Britz, Roman M. Mirecki, Dawn J. Harrison, Beverly A. Clevidence and Janet A. Novotny

cultivation in a controlled environment containing atmospheric 13 CO 2 and to characterize labeled compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Due to our particular interest in anthocyanins, we have chosen red

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S. Kaan Kurtural, Andrew E. Beebe, Johann Martínez-Lüscher, Shijian Zhuang, Karl T. Lund, Glenn McGourty and Larry J. Bettiga

differences were seen within years in which there was an increase in the contribution from trihydroxylated anthocyanins (glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin, and malvidin) and a reduced contribution from dihydroxylated anthocyanins (glucosides of cyanidin and

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Gary W. Stutte, Sharon Edney and Tony Skerritt

., 2005 ). High antioxidant capacity has been attributed to members of the flavonoid family, particularly anthocyanins. Purified anthocyanins have been found to rank highly among other phenolic antioxidants, and their capacities to absorb oxygen radicals

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Ni Jia, Qing-Yan Shu, Dan-Hua Wang, Liang-Sheng Wang, Zheng-An Liu, Hong-Xu Ren, Yan-Jun Xu, Dai-Ke Tian and Kenneth Michael Tilt

.). Anthocyanins are a group of widespread natural pigments in plants that are mainly distributed among flowers, fruit, and vegetables and are responsible for bright colors such as red, purple, and blue. Anthocyanins are composed of anthocyanidin (aglycone) and

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Jan Bizjak, Nika Weber, Maja Mikulic-Petkovsek, Ana Slatnar, Franci Stampar, Zobayer Alam, Karl Stich, Heidi Halbwirth and Robert Veberic

An intense red skin color is an important quality parameter for consumers when purchasing apples and can contribute much to a higher market value of the fruit. In apple fruits, red color is mainly the consequence of the presence of anthocyanins

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Steven M. Todd, Van-Den Truong, Kenneth V. Pecota and G. Craig Yencho

biobased chemicals including biofuels and plastic precursor molecules ( Ellis et al., 1998 ; Werpy and Petersen, 2004 ), thus opening new markets. Sweetpotatoes may also have potential as a source of anthocyanins for use as a natural food colorant and

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Yifei Wang, Stephanie K. Fong, Ajay P. Singh, Nicholi Vorsa and Jennifer Johnson-Cicalese

( Kalt et al., 2007 ). The flavonoid compounds are believed to be the most relevant constituents contributing to blueberry’s health benefits. The most abundant classes of blueberry flavonoids are the anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins (PACs

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Carmina Gisbert, Judith M. Dumm, Jaime Prohens, Santiago Vilanova and John R. Stommel

genetic aspects of flavonoid biosynthesis ( Dubos et al., 2010 ; Jaakola, 2013 ; Matus et al., 2008 ). The flavonoids can be subdivided into anthocyanins (colored) and flavonol copigments (colorless). The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway has been

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Brian Makeredza, Helen Marais, Michael Schmeisser, Elmi Lötze and Willem J. Steyn

during the season the fruit ripens, the tree architecture and bearing habit, and the accumulation of anthocyanin in the peel toward harvest that may mask the visible symptoms of sunburn ( Evans, 2004 ; Racsko and Schrader, 2012 ; Schrader et al., 2001