Potted `Chardonnay' grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) with either two or three shoots were grown in a greenhouse for one month and then transferred to a phytotron room, where either one or two shoots were shaded. Twenty-four days after transfer, leaves at the fifth node of either the light-adapted or shade-adapted shoot were exposed to a 2-hour pulse of 14CO2. Both light environment and number of shade shoots on the vine had a significant effect on photosynthate partitioning within the plant following a 22-hour chase. Leaves fed with 14CO2 on a light-adapted shoot translocated 26.1% and 12.7% more radioactivity to the roots and trunk, respectively, than leaves from shade-adapted shoots. Photosynthates were exported from light-adapted leaves to shade-adapted shoots (1.3% of total 14C in plant). The number of shaded shoots and the light environment of the fed leaf had a large effect on partitioning of photosynthates among ethanol-insoluble, water-soluble, and chloroform-soluble fractions within the leaf. Recovered 14C in the water-soluble fraction of the fed leaf appeared to be affected more by number of shoots than by light environment of the fed leaf. The data suggest that there is a sink effect on initial carbon partitioning patterns in grapevine leaves. Sink strength may have a greater role than light environment. A large proportion of interior leaves versus exterior leaves may be costly with respect to the carbohydrate budget of a vine.
Justine E. Vanden Heuvel, Evangelos D. Leonardos, John T.A. Proctor, K. Helen Fisher and J. Alan Sullivan
L.E. Williams and F.J. Araujo
A study was conducted to compare three measurements of determining water status of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in the field. Predawn leaf water potential (ΨPD), midday leaf water potential (Ψl), and midday stem water potential (Ψstem) were measured on `Chardonnay' and `Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines grown in Napa Valley, California late in the 1999 growing season. Both cultivars had been irrigated weekly at various fractions (0, 0.5, and 1.0 for `Chardonnay' and 0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.5 for `Cabernet') of estimated vineyard evapotranspiration (ETc) from approximately anthesis up to the dates of measurements. Predawn water potential measurements were taken beginning at 0330 hr and completed before sunrise. Midday Ψl and Ψstem measurements were taken only between 1230 and 1330 hr. In addition, net CO2 assimilation rates (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapor (gs) were also measured at midday. Soil water content (SWC) was measured in the `Chardonnay' vineyard using a neutron probe. Values obtained for ΨPD, Ψl, and Ψstem in this study ranged from about -0.05 to -0.8, -0.7 to -1.8, and -0.5 to -1.6 MPa, respectively. All three measurements of vine water status were highly correlated with one another. Linear regression analysis of Ψl and Ψstem versus ΨPD resulted in r 2 values of 0.88 and 0.85, respectively. A similar analysis of Ψl as a function of Ψstem resulted in an r2 of 0.92. In the `Chardonnay' vineyard, all three methods of estimating vine water status were significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with SWC and applied amounts of water. Lastly, ΨPD, Ψl, and Ψstem were all linearly correlated with measurements of A and gs at midday. Under the conditions of this study, ΨPD, Ψl, and Ψstem represent equally viable methods of assessing the water status of these grapevines. They were all correlated similarly with the amount of water in the soil profile and leaf gas exchange as well as with one another.
Cain C. Hickey and Tony K. Wolf
335 Gaiotti, F. Pastore, C. Filippetti, I. Lovat, L. Belfiore, N. Tomasi, D. 2018 Low night temperature at veraison enhances the accumulation of anthocyanins in Corvina grapes ( Vitis vinifera L.) Scientific Rpt. 8 8719 Giusti, M.M. 2001
R. Scorza, J.M. Cordts, D.J. Gray, D.W. Ramming and R.L. Emershad
Transgenic grapevines were regenerated from somatic embryos produced from immature zygotic embryos of two seedless grape selections and from leaves of in vitro-grown plants of `Thompson Seedless'. Somatic embryos were bombarded with gold microparticles using the Biolistic PDS-1000/He device (Bio-Rad Labs) and then exposed to engineered A. tumefaciens EHA101 (E. Hood, WSU). Alternately, somatic embryos were exposed to A. tumefaciens without bombardment. Following cocultivation, secondary embryos multiplied on Emershad and Ramming proliferation medium under kan selection. Transgenic embryos were identified after 3 to 5 months and developed into rooted plants on woody plant medium with 1 mM N6-benzyladenine, 1.5% sucrose, and 0.3% activated charcoal. Seedless selections were transformed with plasmids pGA482GG (J. Slightom, Upjohn) and pCGN7314 (Calgene), which carry GUS and NPTII genes. `Thompson Seedless' was transformed with pGA482GG and pGA482GG/TomRSVcp-15 (D. Gonsalves, Cornell Univ.) containing the tomato ringspot virus coat protein gene. Integration of foreign genes into grapevines was verified by growth on kan, GUS, and PCR assays, and Southern analyses.
Ulrike C.M. Anhalt, Katharina Martini, Ernst-Heinrich Ruehl and Astrid Forneck
. 2011 Dynamic grapevine clones—An AFLP-marker study of the Vitis vinifera cultivar Riesling comprising 86 clones Tree Genet. Genomes 7 739 746 Anhalt, U.C.M. Heslop-Harrison, J.S. Byrne, S. Guillard, A. Barth, S. 2008 Segregation distortion in Lolium
Zhijun Zhang, Huaifeng Liu, Junli Sun, Songlin Yu, Wang He, Tianyuan Li and Zhao Baolong
rootstock on phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties in berries of grape ( Vitis vinifera L.) cv. ‘Red Alexandria’ Scientia Hort. 217 137 144 Consonni, R. Cagliani, L.R. Stocchero, M. Porretta, S. 2009 Triple concentrated tomato paste: Discrimination
Michelle M. Moyer, Jaqueline King and Gary Moulton
soil series description. 20 Sept. 2018. < https://soilseries.sc.egov.usda.gov/osdname.aspx > Wample, R. Smithyman, R. 2002 Regulated deficit irrigation as a water management strategy in Vitis vinifera production. 24 Sept. 2018. < http
Matthew W. Fidelibus, L. Peter Christensen, Donald G. Katayama and David W. Ramming
Clingeleffer, P.R. 2006 Management practices for Sunmuscat ( Vitis vinifera L.): A new drying variety Aust. J. Grape Wine Res. 12 128 134 Enochian, R.V. Zehner, M.D. Johnson, S.S. Petrucci, V.E. 1976 Production costs and consumer acceptance of dried
Jitao Li, Nian Wang, Lina Wang, Haiping Xin and Shaohua Li
alignment of the HOS1-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana , Arabidopsis lyrata , Populus trichocarpa , Ricinus communis , Poncirus trifoliata , Oryza sativa , Physcomitrella patens , and Vitis vinifera ‘Muscat Hamburg’. Identical amino acids are
Paolo Sabbatini and G. Stanley Howell
-cropping cultivar, Sangiovese ( Vitis vinifera L.). Cluster weight was reduced, whereas most soluble solids (Brix) and total anthocyanins were increased. These data indicated that early mechanical defoliation is a viable crop adjustment tool and delivers most of