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Quan Liu, Yan Lan, Feng Tan, Yunbiao Tu, Yingying Sun, Gajue Yougu, Zeshen Yang, Chunbang Ding and Tian Li

837 858 Cheng, Z. Zhan, M. Yang, Z. Zumstein, K. Chen, H. Huang, Q. 2017 The major qualitative characteristics of olive ( Olea europaea L.) cultivated in southwest China Front. Plant Sci. 8 559 doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00559 China Meteorological

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Alberto Sánchez-Estrada and Julián Cuevas

area of Crete Acta Hort. 286 159 162 Ayerza, R. Coates, W. 2004 Supplemental pollination – increasing olive ( Olea europaea ) yields in hot, arid environments Expt. Agr. 40 481 491 Barranco, D. Milona, G. Rallo, L. 1994 Épocas de floración de cultivares

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Raúl De la Rosa, Angjelina Belaj, Antonio Muñoz-Mérida, Oswaldo Trelles, Inmaculada Ortíz-Martín, Juan José González-Plaza, Victoriano Valpuesta and Carmen R. Beuzón

incompatibility in Olea europaea L Phytomorphology 13 141 156 Breton, C.M. Bervillé, A. 2012 New hypothesis elucidates self-incompatibility in the olive tree regarding S-alleles dominance relationships as in the sporophytic model C. R. Biol. 335 563 572 Carriero

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Bouchaib Khadari, Amal Zine El Aabidine, Cinderella Grout, Inès Ben Sadok, Agnès Doligez, Nathalie Moutier, Sylvain Santoni and Evelyne Costes

. 2000 Cytoplasmic male sterility in the olive ( Olea europaea L.) Theor. Appl. Genet. 100 1018 1024 Brachet, S. Jubier, M.F. Richard, M. Jung-Muller, B. Frascaria-Lacoste, N. 1999 Rapid identification of microsatellite loci using 5′ anchored PCR in the

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Ana Centeno and María Gómez-del-Campo

Olive cuttings root well using synthetic auxin indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). However, European and North American regulations do not allow the use of synthetic products to obtain organic vegetative propagation materials. In this work, we evaluated different products that could replace IBA in the propagation of olive cv. Cornicabra leafy-stem cuttings. In 2003, six products with a known auxin effect were assessed: IBA, algae extract, brewer's yeast, a bed of sunflower seed, seaweed dry extract (Sm-6 Organico™), and an extract of macerated seeds (Terrabal Organico™). The basal end of cuttings was treated with one of these products and placed on a mist bed with basal temperature control. After 2 months, rooting percentage, number of roots per cutting, number of cuttings with callus formation, and number of cuttings with basal thickening were determined. No significant differences were found in rooting percentage or number of roots per cutting between IBA and Terrabal Organico™ and Sm-6 Organico™. These last products had significantly higher percentage of rooted cuttings without callus formation than IBA. In 2004, a new trial was conducted in which seven treatments were evaluated: IBA applied for 7 s; Terrabal Organico™ applied for 1, 4, and 8 h; and Sm-6 Organico™ applied for 1, 4, and 8 h. No significant differences in rooting percentage or number of roots per cutting were observed between IBA and Terrabal Organico™ applied for 1 h, whereas all the Sm-6 Organico™ treatments had significantly lower rooting percentages than IBA. Both rooting percentage and the percentage of rooted cuttings without callus development decreased significantly as treatment duration with Terrabal Organico™ increased. Therefore, Terrabal Organico™ could produce a toxic effect on cuttings when treatment duration is increased. Thus, Terrabal Organico™ could be a valid alternative to IBA in the propagation of organic olive plants of cv. Cornicabra when applied to the basal end of cuttings for 1 h.

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Riccardo Gucci, Leonardo Lombardini and Massimiliano Tattini

Water relation parameters were calculated from analysis of 92 pressure-volume isotherms of leaves of two olive varieties, `Leccino' and `Frantoio', measured after 4 weeks of salinity stress and 4 weeks of subsequent relief either in hydroponics or soil culture. `Frantoio' was more salt-tolerant than `Leccino', but no major differences in water relation parameters emerged between the two varieties. Increasing salinity from 0 to 200 mM NaCl decreased predawn leaf water potential from –0.5 MPa to –1.3 MPa, relative water content (RWC) from 97.6% to 89%, and leaf osmotic potential (Ψπ) from –2.0 to –3.5 MPa. Relative water content at turgor loss point (RWCtlp) was decreased from 89% to 85% (soil culture) and from 86% to 80% (hydroponic culture) in 0 to 200 mM CaCl-treated plants, respectively; a lower RWCtlp was also retained during the relief from salinity. Active osmotic adjustments induced by salinity was the result of accumulation of both inorganic ions and compatible solutes (e.g., mannitol). Maintenance of lower Ψπ and RWCtlp during relief indicated that salinized plants were better adapted to withstand further stress and that this potential might be exploited to harden olive plants to be used in arid or saline environments.

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Eddo Rugini, Cristian Silvestri, Marilena Ceccarelli, Rosario Muleo and Valerio Cristofori

complex ( Olea europaea ): Evidence from flow cytometry and nuclear microsatellite analyses Ann. Bot. 101 25 30 Bitonti, M.B. Cozza, R. Chiappetta, A. Contento, A. Minelli, S. Ceccarelli, M. Gelati, M.T. Maggini, F. Baldoni, L. Cionini, P.G. 1999 Amount

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Riccardo Gucci, Giovanni Caruso, Angelo Canale, Augusto Loni, Alfio Raspi, Stefania Urbani, Agnese Taticchi, Sonia Esposto and Maurizio Servili

Plant material. We used an irrigated olive ( Olea europaea L. ‘Frantoio’) orchard (density of 513 trees/ha) at the experimental farm of University of Pisa at Venturina (lat. 43°01′ N; long. 10°36′ E) in 2008 and 2009 to sample fruits for the different

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Raul De la Rosa, Luis Rallo and Hava F. Rapoport

In the olive (Olea europaea L.), inflorescence and flower differentiation occur in the early spring following a period of winter chilling and dormancy of the potentially reproductive buds. We examined the size, structure, and starch content of these buds during winter rest in the field and during forcing under standard growth-chamber conditions. Basic bud structure and dimensions remained unchanged during the rest period, but starch content increased in the bud's central axis. When cuttings were forced in the growth chamber, the buds followed a morphogenetic pattern similar to that observed in the field, but the sequence of developmental events could be timed more precisely. The first changes observed were the onset of axis growth and the differentiation of axillary primordia within 3 days of transfer to the growth chamber. This was followed by the initiation of new nodes, and, at 15 to 18 days, by the first signs of floral differentiation in the terminal and axillary bud apical meristems. Bud growth and differentiation were accompanied by a decrease in starch content.

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Louise Ferguson and Sergio Castro Garcia

As one of the oldest continuously produced tree crops in the world, it is ironic that table olive (Olea europaea) production has benefitted from few technological innovations, including harvesting. Two harvesting technologies, trunk shaking and canopy contact, have been identified. In a 2013 trial, a prototype canopy contact harvester successfully harvested 92% of a 5.3-ton/acre mechanically pruned crop, vs. 81% for a 12.8-ton/acre hand-pruned control crop in a 19-year-old, 13 × 26-ft grove, spaced at 139 trees/acre and adapted for mechanical harvesting with 6 years of mechanical topping and hedging. About 85% of the hand-pruned olives were cannable vs. 86% of the mechanically pruned olives. Over the 6 years of mechanical pruning, the mechanically pruned trees averaged an annual 4.2 tons/acre vs. 5.3 tons/acre with hand-pruned trees. Again in 2013, this same canopy contact harvester achieved 81% final harvester efficiency with a 5.8-ton/acre crop in a 12-year-old, 12 × 18-ft, 202-tree/acre, mechanically pruned hedgerow grove vs. 80% efficiency for a 5.17-ton/acre crop with hand-pruned hedgerow trees. Similarly, no significant differences in the percentage of cannable olives, fruit size distribution, or value per ton was produced by the pruning treatments. In this trial in which both hand and mechanical pruning were used to produce a hedgerow, the hand-pruned trees averaged 3.7 tons/acre vs. 4.3 tons/acre for mechanically pruned trees. In a commercial trial in 2012, the trunk-shaking harvester achieved 77% average harvester efficiency in a 40-acre, 180-tree/acre grove, with a 4-ton/acre crop prepared with both hand and mechanical pruning. These ongoing trials indicate that adapting groves with mechanical pruning does not decrease average annual yields and can produce table olive groves that can be mechanically harvested at a cost and speed that is competitive with hand harvesting.