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J.P. Mueller, M. E. Barbercheck, M. Bell, C. Brownie, N.G. Creamer, A. Hitt, S. Hu, L. King, H.M. Linker, F.J. Louws, S. Marlow, M. Marra, C.W. Raczkowski, D.J. Susko and M.G. Wagger

The Center for Environmental Farming Systems (CEFS) is dedicated to farming systems that are environmentally, economically, and socially sustainable. Established in 1994 at the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCDACS) Cherry Farm near Goldsboro, N.C.; CEFS operations extend over a land area of about 800 ha (2000 acres) [400 ha (1000 acres) cleared]. This unique center is a partnership among North Carolina State University (NCSU), North Carolina Agriculture and Technical State University (NCATSU), NCDACS, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), other state and federal agencies, farmers and citizens. Long-term approaches that integrate the broad range of factors involved in agricultural systems are the focus of the Farming Systems Research Unit. The goal is to provide the empirical framework to address landscape-scale issues that impact long-run sustainability of North Carolina's agriculture. To this end, data collection and analyses include soil parameters (biological, chemical, physical), pests and predators (weeds, insects and disease), crop factors (growth, yield, and quality), economic factors, and energy issues. Five systems are being compared: a successional ecosystem, a plantation forestry-woodlot, an integrated crop-animal production system, an organic production system, and a cash-grain [best management practice (BMP)] cropping system. An interdisciplinary team of scientistsfrom the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at NCSU and NCATSU, along with individuals from the NCDACS, NGO representatives, and farmers are collaborating in this endeavor. Experimental design and protocol are discussed, in addition to challenges and opportunities in designing and implementing long-term farming systems trials.

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Mara Grossman, John Freeborn, Holly Scoggins and Joyce Latimer

Freeborn, 2008 ; Martin and Singletary, 1999 ). The number of branches doubled in Echinacea (L.) Moench ‘White Swan’ and ‘Double Decker’ treated with foliar sprays of 300 or 600 mg·L −1 BA at ≈2 weeks after transplanting to quart-sized (1.1-L) pots

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Dustin P. Meador and Paul R. Fisher

Pythium aphanidermatum and P. dissotocum zoospores was achieved at either 2.0 mg·L −1 Cl at pH 8.1 or 0.5 mg·L −1 Cl at a pH of 6.3. There is extensive research on effects of free Cl on waterborne plant pathogens. Control of Pythium and

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Rebecca G. Bichsel, Terri W. Starman and Yin-Tung Wang

( Conium maculatum L.) bark, pseudobulb number, length, and width, as well as leaf number, were all highest at 1000 mg·L −1 N ( Miwa and Ozaki, 1975 ). However, plants that received 1000 mg·L −1 N produced the least flowering nodes and resulted in the

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Genhua Niu, Denise Rodriguez and Mengmeng Gu

dry mass was unaffected when purslane plants were grown in a closed hydroponic system supplied with 200 mg·L −1 N at various NO 3 :NH 4 ratios of 1:0, 0.25:0.75, 0.5:0.5, or 0.75:0.25 ( Palaniswamy et al., 1997 ). Some plants have different

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Martin Makgose Maboko and Christian Phillipus Du Plooy

reduced preharvest fruit drop with increased number of fruits per plant and increased yield as a result of the application of NAA or β-NAA spray. Repeated application of 27 mg·L −1 NAA at the beginning of flower initiation significantly increased

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Alicain S. Carlson, John M. Dole and Brian E. Whipker

control growth of pineapple lily, but Filios and Miller (2013) found paclobutrazol (4.0 and 8.0 mg/pot) and flurprimidol (2.0 mg/pot) to be effective in controlling height of ‘Innocence’ and ‘Tugela Ruby’ pineapple lily ( Eucomis comosa ). Substrate

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Bekir Şan, Adnan Nurhan Yildirim and Fatma Yildirim

Yildirim, 2009 ), although there are some studies on in vitro germination of whole embryo. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of isolating embryo from cotyledons and the combination of BAP (0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg·L −1 ) with GA 3

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Amy Barker, Ingram McCall and Brian E. Whipker

number have been tested on plumbago. The current recommendation is to apply an ethephon foliar spray of 1000 mg·L −1 1 week before pinching ( Whipker, 2015 ). A previous study evaluated the effectiveness of paclobutrazol and uniconazole foliar sprays and

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T.K. Broschat, D.R. Sandrock, M.L. Elliott and E.F. Gilman

southeastern United States, palms and plants in the Zingiberales are commonly deficient in K, Mg, iron (Fe), B, Mn, and N ( Broschat, 1992 , 2005b ); dicot trees, shrubs, and herbaceous ornamental plants show deficiencies of Mg, Fe, Mn, N, and occasionally B