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David G. Clark, Christopher Dervinis, James E. Barrett and Terril A. Nell

Florida Agricultural Experiment Station journal series R-07081. Use of a seedling hypocotyl elongation assay as a genetic screen for ethylene sensitivity of seedling geranium cultivars. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part

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Sasmita Mishra, Scott Heckathorn, Jonathan Frantz, Futong Yu and John Gray

-B conditions (S. Mishra, S. Heckathorn, and J. Frantz, unpublished results). To investigate the early effects of B deficiency on photosynthesis and how carbohydrate status might affect plant responses to B deficiency, we grew ‘Nittany Lion Red’ geranium

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Kiffnie M. Holt, George Opit, James R. Nechols, David C. Margolies and Kimberly A. Williams

two common and economically important ornamental crops, ivy geranium and impatiens, which have different tolerances to the pest and therefore different damage thresholds ( Alatawi, 2006 ; Opit et al., 2005 ). Biological control is compared with

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D.P.M. Wilson, J.A. Sullivan, A.A. Marsolais and M.J. Tsujita

The origin and development of somatic embryos from petiole sections of Regal geranium (Pelargonium ×domesticum Bailey `Madame Layal') were studied using time-series sections at days 0, 4, 8, 14, and 24. Somatic embryos originated as early as day 4 of culture. The proembryo stage resembled that of a zygotic embryo and the somatic embryos developed through the globular, heart-torpedo, and cotyledonous stages characteristic of in vivo zygotic embryogenesis. A suspensor-like structure was observed with some somatic embryos but this was not consistent. Strong evidence is presented to suggest that somatic embryos arose from single subepidermal parenchyma cells.

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Christopher J. Currey, Kenneth G. McCabe and Kellie J. Walters

transplanting on growth and development of containerized flowering annuals. Materials and Methods ‘Serena White’ angelonia and ‘Pinto Premium Deep Red’ geranium grown in 288-cell trays were received from a commercial plug producer (Wagner Greenhouses

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George P. Opit, Yan Chen, Kimberly A. Williams, James R. Nechols and David C. Margolies

and James Higgins for statistical advice, and Marci Spaw and Sara Schumacher for providing support in rating ivy geranium plants for twospotted spider mite damage. We gratefully acknowledge Fischer USA, Inc., Boulder, Colo., for providing the plant

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Pauline H. Kaufmann* and P. Allen Hammer

In 2002 the USDA reported potted geraniums accounted for $150 million in wholesale value, more than any other bedding or garden plant surveyed. Despite the importance of the geranium in floriculture production, little published research data is available pertaining to the media pH requirements of zonal and ivy geraniums. Current recommendations suggest zonal geraniums be grown at pH 5.7-6.6 and ivy geraniums at pH 5.0-6.2. The wide range in root medium pH recommendations for both zonal and ivy geraniums and the lack of research data prompted this research. Also, the basis for recommending a lower medium pH for ivy geraniums could not be found in published literature. The research objectives were to investigate the effect of medium pH on plant growth and to determine more precise recommendations for both species. The growth of 3 cultivars each of zonal and ivy geraniums growing in 8 medium pH treatments were evaluated. Limestone and hydrated lime were incorporated at increasing rates into a 1:1:1 peat, perlite and bark mix to achieve a medium pH ranging from pH 4.0-7.5. Plants were harvested at weeks 3, 6, and 11 and plant dry weight and media pH were determined. Leaf luminance, chroma and hue were evaluated at week 10. Plant dry weight was greatest at pH 6.55 or higher for both zonal and ivy geraniums at week 11. Leaves of plants grown at pH 6.55 or higher had significantly lower luminance and chroma and greater hue in all cultivars, corresponding to leaves that were darker, less vivid, and deeper green in color. This study shows a root medium pH greater than pH 6.5 results in greatest plant dry weight accumulation and quality of leaf color for both zonal and ivy geraniums. This study also shows ivy geraniums can be grown at the same media pH as zonal geraniums.

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Joshua K. Craver, Chad T. Miller, Kimberly A. Williams and Daniel L. Boyle

different means. Two of the most commonly used names when referring to these growths are intumescence, as described previously, and oedema. Oedema is most commonly found on geranium, whereas the term intumescence is more often associated with growths on

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Bahlebi K. Eiasu, Puffy Soundy and J. Martin Steyn

more extended, herbage yield and essential oil yield were reduced in Pelargonium graveolens . Similarly, Rajeswara Rao et al. (1996) reported that a wet season encouraged vegetative growth of rose-scented geranium and resulted in higher essential oil

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J.J. Hudson, R.G. Nelson and B.K. Behe

Some consumer preference studies show that red is the most popular flower color. Most data analyses were univariate. Conjoint analysis allows simultaneous determination of attribute preferences without all alternatives being shown. Our purpose was to determine consumer preferences for geranium flower color, leaf variegation, and price simultaneously using conjoint analysis. Two-hundred and four consumers shopping at two Montgomery, Ala., garden centers in Apr. 1993 rated 25 composite geranium photographs. A lavender geranium, `Danielle', with green and white leaf variegation priced at $1.39 was most preferred. Flower color was most important in the purchase decision, followed by price. Leaf variegation was a minor consideration in the purchase decision.