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Abstract

‘Vanier’ is a good quality, bright red, medium-sized, round, small-pitted, clingstone, Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.). ‘Vanier’ matures during the last week of August, the same season as ‘Burbank’ and ‘Ozark Premier’. It is introduced primarily for fresh market consumption and for planting in areas where Japanese plums are grown.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Explorer‘ plum (complex hybrid with reciprocal representations of Prunus salicina Lindl., P. americana Marsh., and P. simonii Carr.) was released by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture to provide a large, July-maturing, amberfleshed purple plum adapted to Japanese-type plum-growing areas of the southeastern United States.

Open Access

Abstract

A series of diploid plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. and hybrids), apricot (P. armeniaca L.), and plum × apricot (plumcot) clones were surveyed for six enzyme systems to identify a biochemical marker system for plumcots. Peroxidase (EC 1.11,1.7) was the best marker for identifying plum × apricot hybrids. The other systems contained plum or apricot specific alleles useful in verifying hybrid parentage of first or later generation derivatives.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Robusto’ plum (a complex diploid plum hybrid composed of Prunus salicina Lindl., P. angustifolia March., P. americana Marsh., P. cerasifera J. F. Ehrh., and P. simonii Carr.) has been released to provide the southeastern United States with a cultivar which extends the early fresh and processing ‘Bruce’ season. ‘Robusto’ is similar to ‘Bruce’ in appearance, better in quality, and matures approximately a week later.

Open Access

The dwarfing characteristics of St. Julien and Pixy rootstocks, measured by shoot growth, were evident with `AU-Amber' and `AU-Producer' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) scions. Dwarfing did not occur with `AU-Rubrum'. Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA) was reduced with `AU-Amber', `AU-Producer', and `AU-Rubrum' scions on St. Julien and Pixy rootstocks. After 3 years, tree survival was 94% for Lovell; 89%, Halford; 57%, Nemaguard; 75%, Nemared; 83%, St. Julien; and 47%, Pixy. Tree survivability was significantly lower on Nemaguard and Pixy rootstocks than on Lovell and Halford. Multiple regression of total shoot growth, TCA, and survivability against foliar nutrient content resulted in the following significant equations: 0.460Mg - 0.210Mn, 0.236B - 0.487Mn, and 0.359N + 0.398Ca - 0.267P - 0.360Fe for each, respectively. Growth, survivability, and foliar nutrient content are significantly affected by rootstock in plum production.

Free access

Influence of various concentrations of hydrogen cyanamide (HC) on fruit thinning of `Rome Beauty' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), `Friar,' and `Simka' plums (Prunus salicina Lindley) were studied. A full bloom application of HC at all tested concentrations decreased `Rome Beauty' apple fruit set and yield, and increased fruit weight. Hydrogen cyanamide at 0.25% (V/V) resulted in adequate apple thinning, indicated by the production of an ideal fruit weight. Prebloom and full bloom applications of HC at greater than 0.75% reduced plum fruit set and yield in `Friar.' Full bloom application of HC at 0.25% to 0.50% showed a satisfactory fruit set, yield, and fruit size in `Friar' plum. Full bloom application decreased fruit set and yield in `Simka' plum. Hand thinning, as well as chemical thinning, is recommended for plums.

Free access

Commercially grown apricots (Prunus armeniaca), peaches (Prunus persica), nectarines (Prunus persica), plums (Prunus salicina and Prunus domestica), and pluots (Prunus salicina × Prunus armeniaca) have a tendency to produce high numbers of flowers. These flowers often set and produce more fruit than trees can adequately size to meet market standards. When excessive fruit set occurs, removal of fruit by hand-thinning is common to ensure that fruit size meets market standards. Over the years there have been numerous attempts to find chemical or physical techniques that would help to reduce costs associated with and improve efficiencies of hand-thinning; however, using alternate strategies to hand-thinning have not been widely adopted in stone fruit production. In the past 10 years, through the continuing efforts of scientists throughout the world in public and private institutions and business, it appears that there are chemical sprays capable of reducing the need for hand-thinning in stone fruit. Management of flowering by reducing the number of flowers on apricot, peach, nectarine, plum, and prune has shown promise under climatic conditions such as those found in the San Joaquin Valley of California. By applying gibberellins during May through July, flowers in many stone fruit cultivars can be reduced in the following season. The reduction in flower number does not generally lead to an increase in fruit set. As a result, fruit numbers are reduced, the need for hand thinning can be reduced, and in some cases eliminated. There are risks associated with reducing flower number before climatic conditions during bloom or final fruit set are known. However, given the changes in labor costs and market demands, especially in the developed world, the benefits may outweigh the risks. The application and implications of these summer gibberellin applications toward reducing flower numbers will be discussed as it relates to commercial stone fruit growing.

Free access

Abstract

‘Alderman’ is a large, sweet, cold-hardy, Japanese-type plum hybrid involving Prunus salicina Lindl. and P. americana Marsh. It is being introduced by the Univ. of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station for use in cold climates where other high-quality, Japanese-type plums may suffer winter injury. ‘Alderman’ was named after W.H. Alderman in commemoration of his 100th birthday in 1985 and in recognition of his many accomplishments as a scientist and administrator in horticultural science at the Univ. of Minnesota.

Open Access

Abstract

Two isoenzyme systems, glucose phosphate isomerase and phosphoglucomutase, were identified for use as starch gel electrophoretic markers of plum × peach (Prunus salicina × Prunus persica) interspecific hybrids. Two distinct regions of banding were associated with each enzyme system. Different unique banding patterns for each species were observed for plum and peach at 3 of 4 banding regions. Interspecific hybrid plants exhibited hybrid enzyme patterns with bands from both plum and peach in each region. Consequently, interspecific plum × peach hybrid genotypes may be distinguished from parental plum or peach genotypes. These enzyme systems may be used in breeding programs to identify plum × peach hybrid seedlings.

Open Access