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Over 5 million acres of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are grown annually on the Texas High Plains, providing important resources to local, state and national economies. In recent years, growers have shown interest in farm diversification in order to increase profits. After determining a market, Agri-Gold, Inc. (Olton, Texas; population 2100) successfully diversified from cotton farming by starting with 30 acres of land and 7 canna lily (Canna ×generalis) varieties, but has now grown to produce 500 acres of cannas, 350 acres of irises (Iris sp.) and 100 acres of daylilies (Hemerocallis sp.). Agri-Gold annually markets 75 varieties of cannas, and over 90 iris and 150 daylily varieties while providing important employment opportunities to 50 full-time personnel and 150 part-time seasonal laborers. Crops are grown and marketed for their reproductive structures (rhizomes, bulbs, and crowns) and sold to retail chains throughout the United States. Warm, dry, sunny days and cool nights provide a quality environment for the reproductive growth of these crops. The arid climate and well-drained soils suppress diseases that may occasionally attack, and there are few natural insects that feed on the roots and foliage. Environmentally friendly products such as composted manure (locally produced) and biologicals, as well as integrated pest management (IPM) strategies are routinely included in field management and production decisions. Recent cooperative research efforts between Agri-Gold and Texas Cooperative Extension have evaluated herbicides for control of yellow (Cyperus esculentus L.) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), as well as biological treatments for improved root growth and control of winter storage rots.

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The grape rust mite [Calepitrimerus vitis (Acari: Eriophyidae)] is an important pest of grapevines (Vitis sp.) in grape-growing regions around the world. A rapid method for extracting eriophyoid mites was adapted from earlier studies to provide integrated pest management (IPM) consultants and commercial growers with a practical, efficient, and reliable tool to monitor grape rust mites in vineyards and nursery stock vines. The rinse in bag (RIB) method allows quick extraction of mites from young shoots or from leaves using 35% to 70% ethanol or isopropanol in a sealable plastic bag. The RIB method recovered ≈85% of grape rust mites from single leaves in the first rinse. The method is useful to estimate grape rust mites on young shoots (≤10 cm length), although recovery of grape rust mites (average ranging from 35% to 81%) was lower because of a higher density of trichomes on young shoots as compared with leaf samples. The RIB method was not effective to assess grape rust mites within dormant buds, so a separate method using a blender to disrupt tissues and extract mites in alcohol was developed. The RIB method was used to determine grape rust mite abundance with leaf symptoms in commercial vineyards and nursery stock vines. The earliest visible symptom of grape rust mite damage on leaves in the summer was the development of stippling that is distinct from the type of damage caused by other grapevine pests. The stippling is described as numerous clear zones of small diameter (resembling pinholes) that are visible when a leaf is backlit. The severity of stippling was related to the number of grape rust mites present on leaves, with >600 occurring on leaves with severe stippling symptoms. In commercial vineyard case studies, the RIB method was used over two seasons and revealed that grape rust mite populations remained on leaves until postharvest, and foliar applications of wettable sulfur reduced grape rust mite populations on leaves.

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Experiments at two commercial farms in Bermuda tested the effectiveness of solarization of narrow beds alone and together with metam sodium (MS) to enhance in-field production of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L.) and kale (B. oleracea L. var. acephala DC.) transplants. Soil treatments of clear, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) mulch (25 μm), white LDPE mulch (25 μm) plus MS (702 L·ha-1), and clear mulch plus MS were compared to bare soil. Mulches were applied and MS incorporated through rototiller cultivation 20 cm deep into 1.2-m-wide, flat seed-beds in the last week of June 1995. Mulches were maintained for 8 weeks. Either Broccoli `Pirate' or kale `Blue Curled Scotch' were seeded into transplant beds in Warwick and Devonshire parishes, respectively. Stand data was obtained for broccoli and kale 25 and 35 days, respectively, after seeding. Transplants were rated for root infection and biomass at 11 days (broccoli) or 31 days (kale) after seeding. In general, solarization was as effective as MS in suppression of soilborne pathogens of broccoli and kale plants. An additive effect on plant biomass was observed when solarization and MS were combined. All treatments significantly increased the establishment of broccoli plants and decreased root infection by Rhizoctonia solani in both crops. The incidence of Fusarium sp. was significantly decreased by all treatments in kale roots, and in broccoli by MS alone and in combination with solarization. Shoot fresh weight was significantly increased in kale by all treatments and in broccoli by solarization plus MS.

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Bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.) and paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) genotypes were evaluated in laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments for potential resistance to the common turfgrass pests, tawny mole cricket (Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder) and southern mole cricket (Scapteriscus borellii Giglio-tos). Potential resistance among 21 seashore paspalums to both insects in an environmental chamber at 27 °C, 85% relative humidity, and 15 hours light/9 hours dark) revealed that Glenn Oaks `Adalayd' was least tolerant of cricket injury, while 561-79, HI-1, and `Excalibur' were most tolerant. Nymphal survival was not influenced by turfgrass type. Plant selections that maintained the highest percentage of their normal growth after 4 weeks of feeding by tawny mole crickets over three separate greenhouse trials were 561-79, HI-1, HI-2, PI-509018, `Excalibur', SIPV-1 paspalums, and `Tifeagle' and `Tifsport' bermudagrasses. Although none of the tested genotypes was highly resistant to tawny mole cricket injury, `TifSport' bermudagrass and 561-79 (Argentine) seashore paspalum were most tolerant.

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The strawberry bud weevil (Anthonomus signatus), “clipper,” is an invasive pest to northeastern U.S. strawberry and raspberry crops. Strawberry is the primary host of clipper, but it has been observed damaging raspberry crops as well. The first objective for this research is to determine the importance of clipper as a pest on raspberries in the northeastern U.S. Raspberry plantings were scouted weekly on 13 grower-cooperator farms in Maine during the late spring and early Summer 2005 for the adult insects and bud injury (clipped or not). 10 canes from each site were then collected and the number of total buds and clipped buds were taken. This data will be correlated with the bud injury data to determine interrelationships between clipper populations and bud injury levels on different varieties of raspberries. The first year of this research has determined that clipper is a pest of raspberry in the northeastern U.S. Up to 55% clipper damage was found on raspberry plants in 2004 and up to 22% clipper damage was found in 2005. The other objective for this research is to develop integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for clipper on raspberry crops in the northeastern U.S. While scouting the farms this past summer, some different scouting techniques were tested for their efficiency and effectiveness at predicting the population levels of clipper on the crop. The scouting method of white sticky traps were hung in the field and provided the most accurate method of scouting for clipper in the field. In addition to this research, the importance of clipper as a pest of raspberries was tested using greenhouse-grown plants. They were analyzed for the ability of raspberry fruit yield to compensate for the loss of flower buds due to clipper damage. The research showed that plants with any clipped buds yielded significantly lower and the mean number of berries is significantly lower than the control plants with no clipped buds. The results also showed that the mean berry size was highest if there were no primaries clipped and significantly lower if primaries or secondaries were clipped concluding that there is little or no compensation in Killarney red raspberries when buds are clipped. This is a thesis project in progress with one more season of data to collect. Concluding the research, this work should improve grower awareness of clipper as a pest of raspberries and provide an IPM program to manage clipper on raspberries in the Northeast.

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Plants were grown under light-emitting diode (LED) arrays with various spectra to determine the effects of light quality on the development of diseases caused by tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) on pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), powdery mildew [Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlectend:Fr.) Pollaci] on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum Smith) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). One LED (660) array supplied 99% red light at 660 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height) and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. A second LED (660/735) array supplied 83% red light at 660 nm and 17% far-red light at 735 nm (25 nm bandwidth at half-peak height). A third LED (660/BF) array supplied 98% red light at 660 nm, 1% blue light (BF) between 350 to 550 nm, and 1% far-red light between 700 to 800 nm. Control plants were grown under broad-spectrum metal halide (MH) lamps. Plants were grown at a mean photon flux (300 to 800 nm) of 330 μmol·m-2·s-1 under a 12-h day/night photoperiod. Spectral quality affected each pathosystem differently. In the ToMV/pepper pathosystem, disease symptoms developed slower and were less severe in plants grown under light sources that contained blue and UV-A wavelengths (MH and 660/BF treatments) compared to plants grown under light sources that lacked blue and UV-A wavelengths (660 and 660/735 LED arrays). In contrast, the number of colonies per leaf was highest and the mean colony diameters of S. fuliginea on cucumber plants were largest on leaves grown under the MH lamp (highest amount of blue and UV-A light) and least on leaves grown under the 660 LED array (no blue or UV-A light). The addition of far-red irradiation to the primary light source in the 660/735 LED array increased the colony counts per leaf in the S. fuliginea/ cucumber pathosystem compared to the red-only (660) LED array. In the P. solanacearum/ tomato pathosystem, disease symptoms were less severe in plants grown under the 660 LED array, but the effects of spectral quality on disease development when other wavelengths were included in the light source (MH-, 660/BF-, and 660/735-grown plants) were equivocal. These results demonstrate that spectral quality may be useful as a component of an integrated pest management program for future space-based controlled ecological life support systems.

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We thank the Southeast Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management Group, a large group of people who contributed to this research. In particular, we thank the leader, Dave Suchanic, a Pennsylvania State County Agricultural Extension Agent, for his

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Sponsored by the ASHS Commercial Horticulture Extension Working Group (CHEX), this colloquium brought together eight leaders in high tunnel research. Gathered from across the country, the speakers discuss topics ranging from integrated pest

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Integrated Pest Management for Avocados (Publication 3503) . Steve H. Dreistadt. 2008. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Communication Services, Richmond, CA 94804. 222 p., incl. index, and appendices. $35.00 softbound

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Integrated Pest Management for Strawberries, Second Edition. Larry L. Strand. 2008. The Regents of the University of California, Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Davis, CA 95616. 176 pp. List price $30.00, Softcover. ISBN-13

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