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Abstract

Response of tomatoes, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv. Flora-Dade, to insecticides applied weekly or on demand and to 3 fertilizer levels, low (1 ×), medium (2 ×), and high (3 ×), was investigated in fall 1979 and spring 1980. Insecticide spray schedules had no effect on fruit size, marketable yield, and number of fruit per ha. The application of fertilizers above the 1 × level (148 kg/ha N, 30 P, 171 K, and 10 Mg) did not improve fruit size or increase tomato yields, but increased residual salt content of soil.

Open Access

This research details the influence of fertility on plant growth, photosynthesis, ethylene evolution and herbivore abundance of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora Tzvelev `Charm') inoculated with cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover). We tested five fertility levels that consisted of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 100% (375 ppm N) of recommended nitrogen levels. Aphid abundance was greatest at high fertility. Fertility affected the vertical distribution of aphids. A higher population of aphids were observed in physiologically mature and older leaves at low fertility, whereas at high fertility young leaves had 33% more aphids than older, basal leaves. Aphids depressed plant vegetative and reproductive growth, and altered carbohydrate partitioning at high fertility. Aphid-inoculated (AI) plants at high fertility had increased specific leaf area [(SLA), i.e., thinner leaves] and greater leaf area than aphid-free (NonAI) plants. Aphids caused greater ethylene production in reproductive buds and young leaves of high fertility plants, but had no effect on ethylene evolution in physiologically mature or older, basal leaves. Plant growth, leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) increased at higher fertility, as did chlorophyll and photosynthetic rates. Leaf N was highest in young and physiologically mature leaves compared to basal leaves. Aphids decreased leaf N and P. Aphids reduced photosynthesis in young leaves of high fertility plants, whereas physiologically mature and older leaves were unaffected.

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Collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) were planted in the peripheries of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) fields in the spring growing seasons of 1997 and 1998 to evaluate their effectiveness as a trap crop to manage the diamondback moth (DBM) [Plutella xylostella (L.)]. The numbers of DBM never exceeded the action threshold for application of insecticides in any of thefields that were completely surrounded by collards, but did exceed the action threshold in three of the fields without collards on four sampling dates in 1998. In both years, the numbers of DBM larvae in the collards exceeded the action threshold of 0.3 total larvae/plant in eight of nine fields. Larval counts in cabbage surrounded with collards were not significantly higher than in the conventionally planted cabbage, even though the number of pesticide applications was reduced in the former. The few pesticide applications in fields surrounded by collards probably targeted the cabbage looper [Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)], which was not impeded by the collards from infesting the interior cabbage. There was no significant reduction in marketability, and damage to cabbage was similar to that in fields where collards were planted and in fields where only conventional pesticides were used. The reduced number of pesticide sprays, as well as the high concentration of host larvae in the collards, may help maintain populations of natural enemies of DBM in the agroecosystem. Planting collards in field peripheries is a potentially effective tactic to manage DBM in cabbage.

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The effects of overhead and drip tube irrigation on twospotted spider mite (TSMs) (Tetranychus urticae Koch) and predatory mite (PMs) (Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot) populations, as well as the biological control of TSMs by PMs, were investigated on Impatiens wallerana Hook. f. `Impulse Orange'. To determine the effects of the two irrigation methods on TSM populations, plants were inoculated with female TSMs 6 weeks after seeding. Plants were then irrigated twice every three days, and TSM counts were taken 3 weeks later. To assess the effects of irrigation method on PMs, plants were inoculated with TSMs 6 weeks after seeding, PMs were released 10 days later, plants were irrigated about once per day, and the number of predatory mites on plants was counted 3 weeks after release. To assess the effects of irrigation method on the biological control of TSMs by PMs, plants were inoculated with TSMs and PMs were released as before, but then plants were irrigated either three times every 2 days or three times every 4 days using either drip or overhead irrigation. The number of TSMs on plants and the number of leaves showing TSM feeding injury were measured 3 weeks after predator release. Overhead watering significantly reduced TSM and PM populations as much as 68- and 1538-fold, respectively, compared to drip irrigation with microtubes. Perhaps more important, overhead watering with or without predators significantly reduced the number of leaves sustaining TSM feeding injury as much as 4-fold compared to drip irrigation. These results confirm the common observation that TSM infestations and injury may be reduced by irrigation systems that wet plant foliage. However, predators still reduced TSMs even though overhead irrigation had a suppressive effect on predatory mites. Predators are particularly useful for reducing TSM injury when plants are watered infrequently. Overhead watering could be used in tandem with biological control as a component of an integrated crop management program for TSMs in ornamental greenhouses by rapidly lowering TSM population levels in hot spots before PMs are released.

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Collard greens (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) were planted in the peripheries of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) fields in the spring growing seasons of 1997 and 1998 to evaluate their effectiveness as a trap crop to manage the diamondback moth (DBM) [Plutella xylostella (L.)]. The numbers of DBM never exceeded the action threshold for application of insecticides in any of the fields that were completely surrounded by collards, but did exceed the action threshold in three of the fields without collards on four sampling dates in 1998. In both years, the numbers of DBM larvae in the collards exceeded the action threshold of 0.3 total larvae/plant in eight of nine fields. Larval counts in cabbage surrounded with collards were not significantly higher than in the conventionally planted cabbage, even though the number of pesticide applications was reduced in the former. The few pesticide applications in fields surrounded by collards probably targeted the cabbage looper [Trichoplusia ni (Hübner)], which was not impeded by the collards from infesting the interior cabbage. There was no significant reduction in marketability, and damage to cabbage was similar to that in fields where collards were planted and in fields where only conventional pesticides were used. The reduced number of pesticide sprays, as well as the high concentration of host larvae in the collards, may help maintain populations of natural enemies of DBM in the agroecosystem. Planting collards in field peripheries is a potentially effective tactic to manage DBM in cabbage.

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Associate entomologist. 8 Staff research associate. 9 Principal statistician. Supported in part by grants from the Univ. of California Statewide Integrated Pest Management Project and the Citrus Research Board. Mention of a trademark, proprietary product, or

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Abbreviations: GUS, b-glucuronidase; NPT, neomycin phosphotransferase. This research was funded in part by the New York State (NYS) Apple Research and Development Program, the New York Apple Research Assn., and the NYS Integrated Pest Management

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Authors: , , and

Plant Pathology and Physiology. This work was supported in part by the South Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station and by the Integrated Pest Management Collaborative Research Support Program, U.S. Agency for International Development under grant no

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anonymous reviewers for advice and comments on the manuscript; and the Lely Corp. for use of their tine weeder. The project was partially supported by the New York State Integrated Pest Management Program and by Hatch funds [Regional Project NE-92, NY

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During the initial season of implementation, four tomato production systems differing in soil management, pest control practices, and level of inputs, such as labor, materials, and management intensity were evaluated. These systems were CON, a low input (no mulch, no trellising, overhead irrigation, preplant fertilization, scheduled pest control), conventional agrichemical system; BLD, a high input [straw mulch, trellising, trickle irrigation, compost fertility amendment, integrated pest management (IPM)], ecologically-oriented system that emphasized the building up of soil organic matter levels and used no agrichemicals to supply fertility or for pest control; BLD+, a system similar to BLD, except that agrichemical pesticides were used; and ICM, a high input system (black polyethylene mulch, trellising, trickle irrigation, fertigation, IPM pest control) that used agrichemicals to supply fertility and for pest control. Soil characteristics and fertility levels in the BLD and BLD+ systems were modified with extensive amendments of spent mushroom compost and well-rotted cattle manure. Levels of agrichemical NPK calculated to meet current crop needs were supplied to the CON and ICM systems, with 75% of fertility in the ICM system supplied through the trickle irrigation lines (fertigation). The BLD system had a greater soil water holding capacity and sharply reduced irrigation requirements. During a wet period, fruit cracking and evidence of water-mold root rot were significantly higher in the ICM system than the BLD and CON systems. Defoliation by Alternaria solani was greatest in the BLD system and least in the ICM system. The BLD and ICM systems resulted in a 1 week earlier peak yield compared to the CON system. The yield of No. 1 fruit was 55% to 60% greater in the BLD+ system than the other three systems, which were comparable in yield. Net return was highest in the BLD+ system, although the benefit/cost ratio was greatest in the CON system. This multidisciplinary study has identified important differences in the performance of diverse production systems during the unique transitional season.

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