Experiments were conducted to investigate the potential effect on floral bud initiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananasa, cv. Chandler) by interrupting inductive short day cycles with a day-length extension treatment. Vegetative plants were exposed to 10-, 15-, or 20-day cycles of inductive short days in growth chambers. After receiving an inductive short day treatment plants were transferred to a greenhouse where they were exposed to non-inductive long days, which stimulated panicle elongation. Dissections of apical meristems immediately following each cycle of short days revealed that cycles of 20 days resulted in detectable floral bud formation. After 15 days in the greenhouse, all short day treatments had initiated floral buds. In the greenhouse, under long days, subsequent flowering in cohorts of plants which had previously received inductive short days showed a positive correlation between interruption of short days with day length extension and reduction in the number of floral buds initiated on earliest emerging panicles. These results suggest potential for manipulation of floral bud induction and potentially fruit size in Chandler, and perhaps other cultivars by interruption of a cycle of inductive short days with a day length extension treatment.
are critical for optimizing cut flower production against regional constraints ( Ortiz et al., 2012 ; Wien, 2009 ). Surveys of growers emphasize this need with season extension, control of bloom timing, and cultivar selection as the top
A survey was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Iowa State University (ISU) extension programs and services to the turfgrass, nursery, and landscape plant installation and maintenance industries in Iowa. Completed questionnaires were received from 294 individuals (55% response rate). Respondents indicated they have a continuing need for pest identification and management information and that ISU extension is an important source for this information. In general, most respondents said quality of information provided by ISU extension was better than that offered by horticultural consultants or product suppliers; however, only 48% said extension was doing very well delivering programs and information in a timely manner. Demand for on-site visits with extension specialists was greater than that for distance learning opportunities, suggesting that extension must do a better job of marketing and making relatively new communication technologies palatable.
In the article “Use of Farming Systems Research Extension (FSR/E) Methods to Identify Horticultural Research Priorities in The Gambia, West Africa”, by G.O. Gaye, Isatou Jack, and John S. Caldwell (HortScience 23(l):21–25, February 1988), the authors wish to make the following acknowledgment: “The work reported herein was done under the Gambia Agricultural Research and Development Project of the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of The Gambia; the United States Agency for International Development; and the Univ. of Wisconsin. We express our appreciation to these institutions for their support.”
Each US state was surveyed to obtain a list of teaching materials and methods used to extend information on comporting. Most states offer a bulletin on the subject and some have audo/visual materials. Methods of delivery include traditional lectures by staff and volunteers in most areas. Unique programs include the “Don't Bag It” program in Texas aimed at management of lawn clippings and the “Master Composers” in Washington State that develops volunteers trained specifically for comporting education. A reference list of materials and programs submitted for this project will be available.
Most administrators regard strategic planning as a structured process to produce fundamental decisions and actions shaping and guiding what their organization is, does, and why it does it. A concerted focus on the future is usually involved in the effort. In North Carolina, all Extension Agriculture and Natural Resource Agents, Specialists, Directors and State Staff recently utilized such a structured process in a 3-day conference entitled “The Summit”. The success of this strategic planning process can be measured by the degree to which the process lead to strategic management within NCCE. The Summit used a framework that fully explored forces affecting or impeding strategic thinking. That framework was a day of laying groundwork and with various keynote speakers helping to set the stage; a day of stakeholder direction and attendee active listening and debate; and a day of group reflection. The results of this conference were chronicled in “White Paper” written by a team representing all major in-house stakeholders. While many of the usual problems affecting Extension were reviewed, stakeholder input to both administration and staff is re-shaping the way NCCE uses resources and directs programs. Ten recommendations came out Action te Such an outcome is strategic management, and the framework of The Summit may allow other similar organizations to also have successful strategic planning meetings.