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Research was conducted on the fungus-like organism Pythium to observe its sensitivity to the fungicide Subdue MAXX, active ingredient mefanoxam. Pythium is a plant pathogen that causes root and crown rot in plants that are exposed to extensive soil moisture and poor drainage. This study, conducted on Pythium isolated from Colorado greenhouse crops, began in Apr. 2004. Symptomatic tissues from bedding plants and perennials were placed on selective media (P10VP). Resulting isolations of Pythium were transferred to cornmeal agar amended with the recommended low and high label rates of mefanoxam. Mycelia growth was monitored for 72 hours. Pythium sp. showing 20% growth on amended mefanoxam agars, compared to the control growth, were considered resistant to mefanoxam. Results from this study showed that about 64% of the Pythium sp. isolated from greenhouse crops in Colorado are resistant to mefanoxam. Data compiled from greenhouse integrated pest management surveys in Colorado show a high dependence on the use of mefanoxam. Research and screening for mefanoxam-resistant Pythium sp. will continue to provide Colorado growers with effective control solutions for this pathogen.

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Hazelnuts in Oregon are grown on 30,000 acres by ≈1000 orchardists in the Willamette Valley. Their annual production accounts for 3% to 5% of the world's hazelnut tonnage. The trees are grown in a single trunk system wrtb an average spacing of 20 feet between trees. Mechanical harvestihg is done in October. The industry employs an Integrated Pest Management approach, utilizing combinations of scouting, trapping, and biological control. The main insect pests are filbertworm, filbert leafroller, obliquebanded leafroller, and filbert aphids. The aphid parasite Trioxys pallidus was imported from Europe and successfully established in Oregon. Eastern Filbert Blight, Anisogramma anomala, a fungus disease, is the most serious disease problem in the industry. Annual applications of nitrogen to the soil and boron applied to the foliage are routine for Oregon's hazelnut growers. OSU research has quantified the importance of good light distribution in the tree canopy for increased nut production. OSU recommends a 5-year rotational pruning program. Some growers use mechanical hedging instead of hand pruning. OSU is home to the world's largest hazelnut breeding program. `Barcelona' is still the main, cultivar grown, while `Ennis' is the main in-shell variety. There is growing interest in planting varieties with a high percent kernel, such as `Casina', `Willamette', and `Lewis'.

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Euscepes postfasciatus is one of the most important sweetpotato pests in the South Pacific, Caribbean basin, and some countries of Central and South America. Development of host resistance will greatly improve the effects of integrated pest management (IPM) for this pest. Ten transgenic clones of `Jewel' sweetpotato with cowpea trypsin inhibitors and snowdrop lectin, developed by Axis Agri. Genetics, Ltd., were assayed for weevil resistance using a no-choice bioassay. A replicated experiment was conducted in the screenhouse. Five storage roots from each clone were infested with five pairs of adults. Non-transformed `Jewel' was used as a check. Resistance was assessed 60 days after infestation by estimating the percentage of internal damage and the weevil population in the storage roots. A five-grade damage index was recorded. The experiment was repeated twice. Significant enhancement of resistance was found in the transgenic clones. Clone CTI-13 with cowpea trypsin inhibitor and clone PCG-7 with both cowpea trypsin inhibitor and snowdrop lectin demonstrated moderate resistance to E. postfasciatus, whereas the non-transformed `Jewel' was susceptible. This result shows that resistance to Euscepes postfasciatus can be achieved through genetic transformation.

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A mail survey was distributed to school turfgrass managers throughout Connecticut focusing on the differences between turfgrass management practices for kindergarten through eighth-grade (K-8) school grounds before, during, and after a 2010 ban on pesticide use at these facilities. The results indicate that as turf care protocol transitioned from an integrated pest management (IPM) program to new pesticide-free regulatory requirements, school grounds/athletic field managers did not significantly adjust their management programs. The percentage of managers applying pesticides on K-8 grounds decreased, as expected, with the implementation of the new pesticide ban; however, pesticide applications on high school grounds/athletic fields also decreased. Furthermore, it was observed that there had been minimal adoption of minimum risk 25(b) products, the suggested alternative to traditional synthetic pesticides. With respect to other cultural practices, we found that few changes have been made to other cultural practices that would improve turf quality. Budgetary issues facing school grounds/athletic field managers may have limited their ability to implement potentially costly management practices necessary to offset the loss of pesticides. Educational efforts to promote new management practices have the potential to inform school grounds/athletic field managers about new methods, thereby, potentially increasing adoption.

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A survey, focusing on the use of irrigation and fertilization best management practices (BMPs), was designed and released to Virginia nursery and greenhouse growers. The objectives of the survey were to determine the most widely used BMPs, assess the reasons for their use, and identify barriers to BMP adoption. The survey was distributed in person, via e-mail attachment, or link to 357 Virginia growers in 2016 with 60 respondents. Survey results demonstrate that the most widely used BMPs in Virginia included irrigation scheduling, integrated pest management (IPM) implementation, altering irrigation practices to optimize irrigation efficiency, controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) use, and plant need–based watering. Respondents selected environmental/resource savings as one of the most cited reasons behind BMP use for water, fertilizer, and runoff management. Cost was the most cited barrier to BMP adoption for all BMPs. Fertilizer management BMP implementation was primarily an economic decision. The value of determining the most widely used BMPs and impediments to BMP adoption is that we can 1) communicate this information to growers who currently do not employ BMPs to encourage BMP adoption and 2) subsequently inform the regulatory community of BMP use. Increased BMP use can boost the potential for mitigation of agricultural nutrient and sediment runoff into impaired waterways, including the Chesapeake Bay, and help growers increase efficiency of operation inputs, such as water and fertilizer resources, while potentially saving money.

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The hypothesis was tested that effects of late-season European Red Mite (ERM) [Panonychus ulmi (Koch)] injury on apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit development are better explained by carbon physiology than by pest densities. Midseason ERM populations were allowed to develop in mature semi-dwarf `Starkrimson Delicious'/M26 trees with moderately heavy crops, then were controlled with miticides at different mite-day (activity of one mite per leaf for 1 day) levels as estimated by weekly leaf sampling. The range of final mite-days was from 250 to 2100 on individual trees. Seasonal fruit growth patterns were monitored. Diurnal whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rate (NCER) was measured in eight clear flexible balloon whole-canopy chambers on several dates before and after mite infestations. Mite injury reduced fruit growth rates. Leaf and whole-canopy NCER were reduced similarly. Late season fruit growth and final fruit size were correlated with accumulated mite-days, but were better correlated to whole-canopy NCER per fruit. Fruit firmness, color, soluble solids and starch ratings showed no correlation to mite-days. Number of flower clusters per tree and final fruit per tree the following year were not related to accumulated mite-days, but final fruit per tree the following year were better correlated to whole-canopy NCER per fruit. These results generally supported the hypothesis.

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Fruit maturity, quality, calcium concentration and economic value of `Starkrimson Delicious' (Malus domestica Borkh.) apples, under a range of crop levels and European red mite [Panonychus ulmi (Koch)] cumulative mite-days (CMD), were best explained by local surface regression models involving CMD and crop load. Fruit from trees with low CMD and a light crop (125 fruit/tree, about 20 t/ha) were the most mature at harvest. Those fruit had higher ethylene concentrations, starch pattern indices, soluble solids concentrations, and watercore incidence at harvest than fruit from trees with low CMD and a normal crop (300 fruit/tree, about 40 t/ha), or with high CMD at any crop level. Those fruit also had higher incidences of watercore and internal breakdown after 4 months of cold storage. Calcium concentrations in fruit increased as crop load and CMD increased. Whole-canopy net CO2 exchange rate per fruit related better to fruit quality and calcium concentrations than either crop load or CMD alone, but was always a much worse predictor than local surface regressions. Low CMD and normally cropped trees had the highest crop value; lightly cropped trees had an intermediate crop value; while high CMD and normally cropped trees had the lowest crop economic value. Crop load should be considered when defining action thresholds for mites, and harvest schedules for apples should reflect crop load and mite populations on apple trees.

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The effect of cover-crop management on growth and yield of `Bravo' cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. Capitata L.), `Market Pride' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), and `Mustang' snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was determined. Each fall, `Wheeler' winter rye (Secale cereale L.) and `Oregon Crown' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) were interseeded. The following spring, the cover crops were killed by either applying glyphosate and mowing (CC-G) or mowing and disking (CC-D). Trifluralin was preplant incorporated into bare ground as a conventional tillage (CT) treatment. In 1992 and 1993, a chicken (Gallus gallus L.) based fertilizer was applied to half the subplots. The greatest snap bean and cabbage yields were in CT. The system with the greatest tomato yields varied. In 1991, the greatest tomato yields were in the CT treatment, while in 1992 yields were greatest in the CT and CC-D treatments, and in 1993 the greatest yields were in CT and CC-G. Cabbage yields were greater in the fertilized than the unfertilized treatments. In 1992, infestations of diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, and cabbage looper were greater in CT than in the CC-G treatment. Three years of the CC-G treatment increased soil organic matter from 3.07% to 3.48% and increased soil pH from 6.30 to 6.51, while neither changed in the CT. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate); 2,6-dinitro-N,N-dipro`pyl-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzenamine (trifluralin).

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Flower color preference of western flower thrips [WFT (Frankliniella occidentalis) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)] was assessed by observing insect location after introduction into chambers containing four different colored flowers of each of three plant species: transvaal daisy (Gerbera jamesonii), matsumoto aster (Callistephus chinensis), and chrysanthemum (Dendranthema ×grandiflorum). Preference was based on the number of WFT adults found on each flower 72 hours after infestation. Significantly higher numbers of WFT were found on yellow transvaal daisy and yellow chrysanthemum. When these accessions were compared in a subsequent experiment, WFT displayed a significant greater preference for the yellow transvaal daisy. Visible and near infrared reflectance spectra of the flowers used in the study were measured to determine the presence of distinct spectral features that would account for the relative attractiveness of the flowers. Likewise, the reflectance spectra of three commercially available sticky cards (blue, yellow, and yellow with a grid pattern) that are used to trap or sample for WFT were compared to those of the flowers to determine any shared spectral features that would support observed WFT flower color preference. The observed similarity between the yellow transvaal daisy and yellow sticky card reflectance spectra supports the hypothesis that flower color contributes to attractiveness of WFT. In particular, the wavelengths corresponding to green-yellow (500 to 600 nm) seem to be responsible for attracting WFT. These findings also indicate that yellow sticky cards may be more appropriate in sampling for WFT than blue sticky cards. Although further research is needed, under the conditions of this study, yellow transvaal daisy appears to be a potentially useful trap crop for WFT.

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Abstract

Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata Group ‘Market Prize’) was grown in the spring (February to April) 1981 and fall-winter (October to January) 1981–82 with 2 insecticidal spray schedules conducted weekly and on demand; 2 in-row spacings, 23 and 38 cm; and 2 fertilizer rates, low (152N–53P–139K and 8 Mg kg/ha), and high (257N–99P–261K and 15 Mg kg/ha). Fenvalerate [Cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl) methyl-4-chloro-alpha-(1-methylethyl) benzeneacetate] at 0.112 kg a.i./ha was applied either weekly or when a threshold of 0.5 lepidopterous larval feeding injuries/plant was equalled or exceeded. With the weekly insecticide treatment, 12 and 10 sprays were applied, respectively, in the spring and fall, vs. 1 and 2 applications, respectively, for the 2 seasons in the demand plots. Insect damage ratings were lower in the weekly sprayed than in the demand plots; however, marketable yields (kg/ha) and average head size were not affected by spray schedules. In both seasons, marketable yields were greater at the 28 cm spacing than at 38 cm, whereas average head sizes were greater at 38 cm than at 23 cm. The high fertilizer rate increased head size in both seasons, but increased marketable yields only in the spring.

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