Sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) is a popular culinary herbal crop grown for fresh or dry leaf, essential oil, and seed markets. Recently, basil was shown to rank highest among spices and herbal crops for xanthophyll carotenoids, which are associated with decreased risks of cancer and age-related eye diseases. The research goal for the current study was to characterize the concentrations of nutritionally important carotenoid pigments in popular varieties of basil. Eight cultivars of sweet basil (`Genovese', `Italian Large Leaf', `Nufar', `Red Rubin', `Osmin Purple', `Spicy Bush', `Cinnamon', and `Sweet Thai') were grown in both field and greenhouse environments and evaluated for plant pigments using HPLC methodology. Environmental and cultivar differences were observed for all of the pigments analyzed. `Sweet Thai' accumulated the highest concentrations of lutein, zeaxanthin, and β-carotene carotenoids in the field, while `Osmin Purple' accumulated the highest carotenoid concentrations in the greenhouse. Comparing the two environments, cultivar levels for carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments were higher in the field environment when expressed on both a fresh and dry weight basis. Exceptions were found only for the purple leaf basils (`Osmin Purple' and `Red Rubin'). Positive correlations existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll pigments in both environments. This study demonstrates sweet basil accumulates high levels of nutritionally important carotenoids in both field and greenhouse environments.
The yellow pigment in potato (Solanum L. sp.) tuber flesh is caused by various carotenoids that may protect against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and macular eye degeneration. The objectives of this research were to 1) identify and quantify the carotenoids present in 11 diploid clones from a hybrid population of Solanum phureja ssp. phureja Juz. & Bukasov-S. stenotomum ssp. stenotomum Juz. & Bukasov and two tetraploid potato cultivars (the yellow-fleshed `Yukon Gold' and the white-fleshed `Superior'), and 2) determine the relationship between tuber yellow intensity and carotenoid content. Yellow intensity was measured by a colorimeter programmed to calculate a yellowness index, YI E-313. Carotenoid analyses were performed on an automated high-performance liquid chromatography system with software for integration and quantitation with detection at 450 nm using a diode array detector. Six major carotenoids were detected: neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein-5,6-epoxide, lutein, zeaxanthin, and an unknown carotenoid. Total carotenoid content in the yellow-fleshed diploid clones was 3 to 13 times higher than `Yukon Gold' and 4 to 22 times higher than `Superior'. Both total and individual carotenoid contents were positively correlated with tuber yellow intensity. There was an exponential relationship between total carotenoid content and tuber yellow intensity. This suggests that selecting for more intense yellow flesh will result in higher levels of carotenoids. These specific diploid clones were selected for this study because they produced at least five percent 2n pollen; they have the potential to make significant contributions to improving the nutritional status of tetraploid potatoes through 4x-2x hybridizations.
also important secondary metabolites in the Brassicaceae. Carotenoids are lipid-soluble, isoprenoid pigments found in all photosynthetic organisms. They are divided into oxygenated xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin, and violaxanthin and
diseases including cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. Perhaps the clearest link between specific carotenoids and a health outcome is that for lutein/zeaxanthin and age-related macular degeneration ( Snodderly, 1995 ) and reduction of inflammation
-β-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin (CaroteNature, Ostermundigen, Switzerland) to identify and quantify carotenoids in samples. Statistical analysis. SAS statistical software (version 9.2; SAS Institute, Cary, NC) was used to perform statistical analyses. The
lutein predominating and varying amounts of zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, and others reported ( Brown et al., 1993 ; Iwanzik et al., 1983 ; Lu et al., 2001 ; Nesterenko and Sink, 2003 ). The greatest levels of total carotenoids are from the potato
-carotene (Sigma, < http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/united-states.html >) and capsanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin (CaroteNature GmbH, < http://www.carotenature.com/ >). Representative chromatograms for the HPLC detection of carotenoids are
Various forms of Hemerocallis fulva differed in their relative anthocyanin: carotenoid ratios and the type of anthocyanin present. Hemerocallis fulva fm. fulva contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein). Hemerocallis fulva fm. rosea contained a single anthocyanin (cyanidin-3-rutinoside) and traces of carotenoids. Hemerocallis fulva fm. disticha contained a single anthocyanin (delphinidin-3-rutinoside) and two carotenoids (zeaxanthin and lutein).
-epoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin through antheraxanthin) and the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-oxidative stress is well documented ( Du et al., 2010 ). For example, exogenous applications of ABA to barley ( Hordeum vulgar ) seedlings resulted in an
To determine the cause of zonal chlorosis of `Honeycrisp' apple leaves, we compared CO2 assimilation, carbohydrate metabolism, xanthophyll cycle and the antioxidant system between chlorotic leaves and normal leaves. Chlorotic leaves accumulated higher levels of non-structural carbohydrates, particularly starch, sorbitol, sucrose, and fructose at both dusk and predawn, and no difference was found in total non-structural carbohydrates between predawn and dusk. CO2 assimilation and the key enzymes in the Calvin cycle, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoribulokinase, stromal fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and enzymes in starch and sorbitol synthesis, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and aldose 6-phosphate reductase were significantly lower in chlorotic leaves than in normal leaves. However, sucrose phosphate synthase activity was higher in chlorotic leaves. Thermal dissipation of excitation energy was enhanced in chlorotic leaves under full sun, lowering the efficiency of excitation energy transfer to PSII reaction centers. This was accompanied by a corresponding increase in both xanthophyll cycle pool size (on a chlorophyll basis) and conversion of violaxanthin to antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin. The antioxidant system was up-regulated in chlorotic leaves in response to the increased generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings support the hypothesis that phloem loading and/or transport is partially or completely blocked in chlorotic leaves, and that excessive accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates may cause feedback suppression of CO2 assimilation via direct interference with chloroplast function and/or indirect repression of photosynthetic enzymes.