A survey instrument was designed to determine public opinion on water conservation, water conserving landscapes, the use of native plants in landscapes, home irrigation systems, and the performance of five Texas native plant species [pink evening primrose (Oenothera speciosa); prairie verbena (Verbena bipinnatifida); red yucca (Hesperaloe parviflora); ceniza (Leucophyllum frutescens); and ruellia (Ruellia nudiflora)] grown in low water use landscapes in the semiarid Southwestern United States. On six occasions during the 1999 growing season, participants viewed landscapes and participated in a survey. Survey data indicate that over 90% of respondents thought water conservation was important to the state of Texas. A majority of participants however, believed water conserving landscapes to be expensive to maintain and not aesthetically pleasing. The survey revealed 79% of participants would use native plants if native plants conserved water, and 86% of participants would use native plants if native plants were attractive. Chi-square approximations revealed participant's opinions regarding water conservation and home irrigation systems were influenced by education level and amount of time they participated in weekly horticulture activities. In an open-ended question, participants indicated flowers and healthy leaves were characteristics indicating a plant was performing well. Throughout the year, species in flower received higher ratings than nonflowering species.
water quality issues are getting worse over time and are significantly affecting the future of green industries (greenhouse, nursery, landscape). Water conservation can be achieved by irrigating greenhouse and nursery crops, and landscape plantings with
application. The objectives were to: 1) determine the effect of scheduling irrigation according to DWU on water conservation and plant growth; 2) determine DWU and water use efficiency (WUE) of several types of common container-grown woody ornamentals and
Depletion and contamination of traditional water supplies and population pressures are straining the water resources of the United States. This has placed increased emphasis on the need for water conservation through all phases of the use cycle. Objectives of this research were to: 1) Determine water use in residential, commercial, and institutional landscapes; 2) Evaluate landscape irrigation system performance; and 3) Evaluate feasibility of landscape irrigation scheduling. Beginning in 1991, water meters on 18 test sites in Lincoln, NE were read on a weekly basis. Water meter readings during the winter were used to develop a baseline on non-landscape water use. The “can test” method was used to evaluate landscape irrigation system precipitation rate and distribution efficiency. Four recording weather stations were used to estimate daily potential evapotranspiration (ETp). Lysimeters (20 cm dia. × 31 cm deep) were installed in two Kentucky bluegrass and one tall fescue landscape to estimate water use coefficients for calculating landscape evapotranspiration. Irrigation system Christiansen coefficients of uniformity ranged from .43 to .87 with scheduling coefficients ranging from 1.31 to over 15.14. Poor irrigation system performance characteristics made it difficult to schedule irrigation on estimated water use.
In June 1991, a two year field study was initiated to examine if three non-turf groundcovers with reputations for using low amounts of water actually use less water than Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). Irrigation treatments were based on percentages of ET (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%, 0%) and calculated by the modified Penman equation. Results from the 1991 season indicate that at the 100% and 75% treatments Potentilla tabernaemontani and Cerastium tomentosum were significantly better than the other species in terms of establishment and vigor but quality declined significantly at rates below 75%. At the 50% rate both KBG and Sedum acre maintained good quality although growth was slow. At the 25% rate, quality of KBG significantly declined while Sedum acre maintained good quality. Quality of Sedum acre declined only slightly at the 0% treatment and would be a good alternative to KBG if water conservation was a high priority in the landscape.
. Larger plants in containers tend to require more irrigation, so their removal is thought to reduce irrigation frequency, or at least spot hand-watering. Furthermore, reduced plant density is thought to be associated with reduced levels of shoot diseases
Interdisciplinary graduate degrees are becoming increasingly popular, filling both employer needs as well as student goals. The Plants and Soils Department at Utah State University offers an interdisciplinary master of professional studies in horticulture (MPSH) degree program specializing in urban landscape water conservation. The MPSH is a one calendar year degree consisting of a small group cohort with a strong emphasis on communication and policy development geared toward creating and managing water conservation programs. Core to this model is what personality type is drawn to an MPSH degree compared to the traditional, research-based master of science degree. We are comparing the personality types of 16 students in the MPSH to 15 students in, or having completed, the traditional MS degree program by using the Myers-Briggs test (MBTI), Strong Interest Inventory (SII) test, and key informant surveys. Basic MBTI personality categories in extroversion/introversion, sensing/intuition, thinking/feeling and judging/perceiving are being evaluated by comparison in contrast as well as consistency across the two degree types. Key informant surveys quizzed individual preference regarding the two degrees. Preliminary inspection of survey, MBTI and SII results indicate a definite link between type of graduate program and basic personality trait. Students in or having completed the traditional MS degree program that indicated a preference for the MPSH degree shared the same personality types as those in the MSPH program. These preliminary results suggest that an interdisciplinary professional degree in horticulture focused on a particular topic can appeal to horticultural undergraduates that might not otherwise consider a graduate degree.
. Historically, water conservation has not been a priority in the containerized crop industry. Risk aversion and a desire to prevent plant water stress and associated yield impacts has translated to irrigation methods that optimize water delivery and do not
Most areas of northern California have ample water supplies from reservoirs, aqueducts, or deep wells, but some regions are not as fortunate. Such a region is Half Moon Bay located just 35 km south of San Francisco along the coastal plain. Several large producers of ornamental plants and cut flowers are located in the vicinity. Competition between homeowners and producers of ornamentals for available water in this area became critical by 1977 as a result of urban sprawl. In addition state and regional agencies began taking action to curtail polluted runoff waters from ornamental production sites. Locally the Coastside County Water District Water Quota Ordinance of 1977-78 instituted a water quota system with strong penalties for noncompliance. Statewide the California Fish and Game Code (1) was strictly enforced to prevent certain classified materials from passing into the waters of the state. The combination of these developments activated a search by growers for better use or reuse of irrigation water and separation of clean runoff waters from those that might be nutrient laden or otherwise polluted.