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Edward W. Bush, James N. McCrimmon and Allen D. Owings

Four warm-season grass species [common carpetgrass (Axonopus affinis Chase), common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers.), St. Augustinegrass (Stenophrum secondatum Walt. Kuntze.), and zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.)] were established in containers filled with an Olivia silt loam soil for 12 weeks. Grasses were maintained weekly at 5 cm prior to the start of the experiment. Water stress treatments consisted of a control (field capacity), waterlogged, and flooded treatments. Waterlogging and flood treatments were imposed for a period of 90 days. The effects of water stress was dependent on grass species. Bermudagrass vegetative growth and turf quality were significantly reduced when flooded. Carpetgrass, St. Augustingrass, and zoysiagrass quality and vegetative growth were also reduced by flooding. St. Augustinegrass and zoysiagrass root dry weight was significantly decreased. Zoysiagrass plants did not survive 90 days of flooding. Leaf tissue analysis for common carpetgrass, common bermudagrass, St. Augustinegrass, and zoysiagrass indicated that plants subjected to waterlogging and flooding had significantly elevated Zn concentrations.

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R.L. Green, J.B. Beard and M.J. Oprisko

Root hairs contributed variously to total root length, ranging from a low of 1% for `Emerald' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud. x Z. tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin) and 5% for `Georgia Common' centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack], to a high of 95% and 89% for `Texturf 10' and `FB 119' bermudagrasses [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], respectively. Genotypes ranking highest for root lengths with root hairs also ranked highest for root lengths without root hairs and for number of main roots per plant. In terms of root lengths with root hairs, first-order lateral roots contributed more to total root length than root lengths of either main roots or second-order lateral roots for all nine genotypes. Number and length of root hairs arising from either main or lateral roots were not significantly affected by their relative distance from the cap of the main root. `Texturf 10' and `FB 119' bermudagrasses ranked highest for root and root-hair extent.

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S. Severmutlu, N. Mutlu, R.C. Shearman, E. Gurbuz, O. Gulsen, M. Hocagil, O. Karaguzel, T. Heng-Moss, T.P. Riordan and R.E. Gaussoin

available in the literature on warm-season turfgrass species adaptation and use in this region. Urbanization, tourism, intensive agricultural use, and global warming have strained available water resources on a worldwide basis ( Isendahl and Schmidt, 2006

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Marco Fontanelli, Michel Pirchio, Christian Frasconi, Luisa Martelloni, Michele Raffaelli, Andrea Peruzzi, Nicola Grossi, Lisa Caturegli, Simone Magni, Monica Gaetani and Marco Volterrani

Turfgrass species can be classified into two main groups: cool-season and warm-season species. Because of their different physiology, warm-season species need less water to produce the same dry matter weight, thus they are more suited to

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Marco Schiavon, Brent D. Barnes, David A. Shaw, J. Michael Henry and James H. Baird

well ( Fry et al., 2007 ). Scalping taller cut cool-season turf such as tall fescue before interseeding can help hasten warm-season turfgrass establishment. Zuk and Fry (2005) demonstrated that seeded zoysiagrass coverage at the end of a 3-year study

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John E. Kaminski, Tim T. Lulis and Travis R. Russell

vegetable and petroleum hydraulic fluid were completely dead ( Berndt, 2007 ). In field experiments on putting greens of multiple warm-season turfgrass varieties, Berndt (2007) reported that a synthetic hydraulic fluid treatment consistently produced

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Jason J. Griffin, William R. Reid and Dale J. Bremer

, Kans. (37°31′ N, 97°19′, 380 m above sea level). On 1 Oct. 2002, all plots were fertilized with 3.3 kg·ha −1 of 13N–5.7P–10.7K–3S. Individual plots were then seeded with one of two cool-season turfgrass species, left bare to be sprigged with a warm-season

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Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe and Michael D. Richardson

for the establishment of warm-season grasses from seed. Turfgrass coverage was determined by visual estimates until 54 DAP, when a majority of the species had reached full coverage. Soil temperature was continuously (every 30 min) monitored for 1 month

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Bradley S. Sladek, Gerald M. Henry and Dick L. Auld

reduced light intensities ( Morton et al., 1991 ; Qian and Engelke, 1999a ; Qian et al., 1998 ). It is a warm-season, perennial turfgrass native to parts of China, Japan, and Korea ( Engelke and Anderson, 2003 ). Zoysiagrass is adapted throughout the

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Gokhan Hacisalihoglu

-maintenance grass that is common on lawns, especially in northern Florida ( Table 1 ). Table 1. Sources, uses, and cultivars of three warm-season turfgrass species used for seed germination, matriconditioning, and aging studies in Tallahassee, FL. Establishing a