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Shiuchi and Fujita (2006 ). The only other species with multiple ploidy reports is S. hookeri , with a diploid count published ( Mehra and Bawa, 1969 ) in addition to the previously mentioned tetraploid count. The only cultivar with reported ploidy is S

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( Adams and Wendel, 2005 ; Comai, 2005 ; Hegarty and Hiscock, 2008 ; Soltis and Burleigh, 2009 ). Knowledge of ploidy levels is important for plant breeders because it can influence fertility, crossability, segregation, and gene expression ( Chen and Ni

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with the International Bougainvillea Registration Authority. Many more varieties with various flower colors, bract types, flowering periods, and stress resistance are always needed for family potting and public landscaping. Ploidy is an important

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nature of Salvia and vast geographic spread, remarkable variations in chromosome number and ploidy exist across the genus. Ploidy levels range from diploid to octoploid, and chromosome base numbers include x = 6–11, 13, 14, 15, 17, and 19 ( Delestaing

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ploidy level of known germplasms is unclear. The mixed ploidy levels in the grass population could also be challenging to marker development and gene identification, ultimately influencing marker-assisted selection to improve desirable traits. In addition

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investigated have been tetraploid, higher ploidy levels have been reported including hexaploids (‘Aphrodite’, ‘Diana’, ‘Helene’, ‘Minerva’, ‘Melrose’, ‘Pink Giant’, and ‘Shimsan’) and octoploids (‘Purple CV’, ‘Purple CV 2 ’, ‘Red Heart CV’, ‘Sp 1 ’, Sp 2 ’, and

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are complex. Previous karyological studies have demonstrated the basic chromosome number for liriopogons to be x = 18 (rarely x = 17) with high levels of polyploidy in many species ( Table 1 ). Also, Fukai et al. (2008) investigated ploidy level

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consideration in plant breeding because it can influence crossability, morphology, fertility, and gene expression ( Chen and Ni, 2006 ; Soltis et al., 2004 ). Sampling of ploidy levels has been very limited for Mahonia taxa. Mahonia aquifolium , M

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ploidy series, with estimates of 70% tetraploid (2 n = 4 x = 68), 15% triploid (2 n = 3 x = 51), and 10% diploid (2 n = 2 x = 34), and the remaining species of greater ploidy level ( Fryer and Hylmö, 2009 ). Apomixis is common in Cotoneaster and

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Nalini, 1972 ), and the cause(s) of such in vitro germination failures remain to be identified. Thus, pollen stainability has been the primary parameter used in lantana pollen viability assessment. This study was conducted to determine the ploidy levels

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