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Soilless substrates are the mainstay of container production and nursery industries of horticultural plants. Peat moss is a primary component of many commercial soilless growing media due to its desirable properties, such as high porosity, low

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Peat has been a major component of substrates for containerized plant production since the 1960s ( Bohlin and Holmberg, 2004 ) due to its high porosity, high water-holding capacity, and relatively high cation-exchange capacity (CEC). The mining and

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considered to have medical and therapeutic effects, thus leading to the recent interest in Cannabis production ( Salentijn et al. 2019 ). Currently, several products are used in the formulation of a growing media including sphagnum peat, aged or composted

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gardens, etc.). As such, to sustain these intense demands of horticultural crop and food production, there will be considerable increase in requirements for soilless substrates, especially in peat materials, which is estimated at a 200% increase ( Blok et

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Abbreviations: AW, available water; BD, bulk density; GW, gravitational water; PBS, peat-based substrate; % REC, intensity of root-length endomycorrhizae colonization; VAM, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal; WCS, water content at saturation. 1

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popular across the United States ( Goldstein, 2001 ). Several studies have examined the use of YWC as a potential substitute for peat-lite mixes in containerized plant production ( Burger et al., 1997 ; Hartz et al., 1996 ; Ozores-Hampton et al., 1999

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material is determined by its availability, cost, and physical properties. In this study, the five substrates used were selected to cover the range of porous materials used in container plant production. All substrates were based on peat, coir, and

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Peat is widely used in the ornamental nursery industry as a major constituent of growing media for container plant production. In recent years, environmental concerns about peat extraction in wetland ecosystems have risen. Conservation of existing

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sphagnum peat harvesting ( Barrett et al., 2016 ; Maher et al., 2008 ), in addition to increasing costs to manufacture and transport peat and other substrate components. Substrates containing (by volume) 20% to 40% wood fiber as a substrate amendment or

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have a considerable impact on plant growth. The hydraulic properties of growing media generally provide precise information about their ability to provide good growth conditions. Peat, especially slightly decomposed sphagnum peat, is a growing medium

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