Abbreviations: ψ P , leaf turgor potential; ψ s , leaf osmotic potential; ψ W , leaf water potential; DPM, disintegration per minute; MEOH, methanol; Pn, photosynthesis; RWC, relative water content; Rs, stomatal resistance. 1 Current address
Citrus rootstocks have well-known effects on tree size, crop load, fruit size, and various fruit quality factors. Fruit from trees budded on invigorating rootstocks are generally larger with lower soluble solids concentration (SSC) and titratable acidity compared to fruit from trees budded on less invigorating rootstocks. Although it is unclear how rootstocks exert their influence on juice quality of Citrus L. species, plant water relations are thought to play a central role. In addition, the larger fruit size associated with invigorating rootstocks and the inverse relationship between SSC and fruit size implies that fruit borne on trees on invigorating rootstocks have lower SSC due to dilution effects in larger fruit. To determine how rootstock type affects sugar accumulation in fruit of Citrus species, controlled water-deficit stress was applied to mature `Valencia' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] trees on Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] or rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) rootstocks. Withholding water from the root zone of citrus trees during stage II of fruit development decreased midday stem water potential and increased the concentrations of primary osmotica, fructose and glucose. Sucrose concentration was not affected, suggesting that sucrose hydrolysis took place. Increased concentrations of sugars and SSC in fruit from moderately water-stressed trees occurred independently of fruit size and juice content. Thus, passive dehydration of juice sacs, and concentration of soluble solids, was not the primary cause of differences in sugar accumulation. Controlled water-deficit stress caused active osmotic adjustment in fruit of `Valencia' sweet orange. However, when water-deficit stress was applied later in fruit development (e.g., stage III) there was no increase in sugars or SSC. The evidence presented supports the hypothesis that differential sugar accumulation of citrus fruit from trees on rootstocks of contrasting vigor and, hence, plant water relations, is caused by differences in tree water status and the enhancement of sucrose hydrolysis into component hexose sugars resulting in osmotic adjustment. Therefore, inherent rootstock differences affecting plant water relations are proposed as a primary cause of differences in sugar accumulation and SSC among citrus rootstocks.
Osmotic adjustment (OA) is a major physiological mechanism associated with maintenance of cell turgor in response to dehydration stress. The objectives of this study were to examine changes in capacity for OA in relation to plant tolerance to drought stress for two cool-season turfgrass species, creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) and velvet bentgrass (A. canina L.), and to determine major solutes contributing to OA in these grass species. Plants of `L-93' creeping bentgrass and `Greenwich' velvet bentgrass were grown in a growth chamber in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubes (5 cm diameter, 40 cm high) filled with a 1:3 (v/v) sterilized mixture of sand and sandy loam soil. The experiment consisted of two soil moisture treatments: 1) well-watered control, irrigated three times per week to maintain soil moisture near pot capacity; and 2) drought stress, irrigation completely withheld. Velvet bentgrass exhibited higher drought tolerance compared to creeping bentgrass, as manifested by higher visual turfgrass quality (TQ) and leaf relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Both creeping bentgrass and velvet bentgrass exhibited OA in response to drought stress; however, velvet bentgrass exhibited 50% to 60% higher magnitude of OA, which could be related to the maintenance of higher leaf RWC and TQ for greater drought duration compared to creeping bentgrass. OA for both creeping bentgrass and velvet bentgrass was associated with accumulation of water soluble carbohydrates during the early period of drought and increases in proline content following prolonged period of drought; however, inorganic ion content (Ca2+ and K+) did not considerably change under drought stress and did not seem to contribute to OA in these species.
Abbreviations: Ψ π , osmotic potential; Ψ π,sat , osmotic potential at full turgor. 1 Present address: North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Horticultural Science, Mountain Horticultural Crops Research and Extension Center, 2016 Fanning Bridge Road
potential, which results in improved uptake of water and nutrients ( Hassan and Sahrin, 2012 ). Osmotic adjustments play a fundamental role in plant responses to water stress ( Osakabe et al., 2013 ). Water deficits influence various physiological and
involves changes in various morphological and physiological factors ( Nilsen and Orcutt, 1996 ; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 1997 ). Leaf dehydration tolerance has been attributed to at least two mechanisms: osmotic adjustment (involving inorganic
. Nonetheless, there are some commonalities. Tolerance (to high salt levels in plant tissues) almost always requires the combination of several different traits: accumulation and compartmentation of ions for osmotic adjustment; the synthesis of compatible
). The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of EBR treatment on perennial ryegrass under salt stress condition and detect changes of osmotic adjustment and antioxidant defense system in perennial ryegrass. Materials and Methods
, osmotic adjustments, and saturation level of cell membrane lipids ( Huang et al., 2014 ; Shinozaki and Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, 2007 ), these responses can be overwhelmed during climatic extremes. Drought stress may inhibit photosynthesis and cause an energy
water loss, which is governed by stomatal behaviors and osmotic adjustment among various other physiological factors ( Farooq et al., 2009 ; Kramer and Boyer, 1995 ). Osmotic adjustment helps to maintain the cell water balance with active accumulation