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both allow easier grafting and reduce the risk of scion exposure. Also, the authors are aware that commercial propagators often encounter inconsistencies in seedling morphology, possibly as a result of changes in light quality during twilight hours or

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Tukey’s test using Statgraphics Centurion ® 16.1.15 (Warrenton, VA) and Microsoft Office 2010. Results and Discussion Effect of light quality on light parameters. Given identical energy consumption and an equivalent number of LED lamps per area, there

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and are able to produce high yields with uniform quality year round. Recently, intensive research has been performed to elucidate the effect of light intensity and wavelength on plant growth with the use of LEDs, which offer many advantages, including

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photosynthetic tissues from high light intensities ( Smillie and Hetherington, 1999 ), and increased anthocyanin synthesis has been shown to occur under high LI ( Krol et al., 1995 ; Mancinelli, 1983 ). It is also likely that higher LI reduced the quality of the

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regulates plant behavior depending on light quantity, quality, direction, and duration ( Chang et al., 2008 ; Dou et al., 2017 ; Figueiredo et al., 2008 ; Shafiee-Hajiabad et al., 2016 ). Daily light integral [the product of photosynthetic photon flux

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. Statistical analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS 18.0 (IBM, Inc., Chicago, IL). Analysis of variance was performed to test the significance of main factors of DLI and light quality. Duncan’s multiple range test was conducted to compare

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response to differences in spectral quality of light emitted by a fixture. Several reports indicated a reduction in lettuce growth when spectral quality of supplied light is not optimized for a given light intensity ( Johkan et al., 2010 ; Tosti et al

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( Beyramizade et al., 2008 ; Gantait and Mandal, 2010 ; Vargas et al., 2004 ). Additionally, little information is available regarding the effects of light quality on rooting and growth of regenerated adventitious shoots. Light quality has a pronounced effect

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several kalanchoe species HortTechnology 21 98 101 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH.21.1.98 Fausey, B.A. Heins, R.D. Cameron, A.C. 2005 Daily light integral affects flowering and quality of greenhouse-grown Achillea, Guara , and Lavandula

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constructed of paper or polypropylene. The physical covering changes the environment in the area surrounding the fruit, or the carposphere, and the associated alterations in light, temperature, and humidity can affect fruit quality. Several studies have

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