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artificially induced autopolyploids. Table 1. Mean 2C genome sizes and ploidy levels of Berberis and Mahonia species, hybrids, and cultivars. Flow cytometry was conducted on tissue (0.5 cm 2 ) taken from recently expanded leaves using a hole

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clean the cytometer between each run. The 2C DNA contents were calculated as follows: 2C = DNA content of standard × (mean fluorescence value of sample ÷ mean fluorescence value of the standard). Expt. 1: Estimating genome sizes of plant reference

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. Stained nuclei suspensions were refrigerated at 4 °C for 1 h before being analyzed via flow cytometry. All samples were completely randomized before analysis. Flow cytometry. Holoploid genome size estimates were determined by measuring the relative

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confirmed pentaploid, was used as a reference to compare the approximate genome sizes (DNA content) for the different ploidy levels. Mean 2C holoploid genome sizes for F. gardenii ranged from 4.2 to 4.5 pg, hybrids ranged from 5.2 to 5.5 pg, and F. major

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sexual fertilization, form a 2C x (diploid) embryo and 3C x (triploid) endosperm, where 1C x represents the monoploid genome size of one complete set of chromosomes. In gametophytic apomixis, the unreduced embryo sac and gametophyte develop

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( Greilhuber et al., 2005 ). Monoploid genome size (the amount of DNA of one chromosome set, 1 C x value, with chromosome base number x ) and holoploid genome size (the amount of DNA of the whole chromosome complement, 1 C -value, with chromosome number n

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., Buffalo Grove, IL) and were then observed using an FE-SEM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Precision, Waltham, MA). Flow cytometry was used to determine the holoploid (2C) relative genome size for both species and the hybrid used in our research. The analysis

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exceeding a minimum of 3000 cells per analysis. Mean fluorescence for each sample was compared with an internal standard of known genome size ( Pisum sativum L. ‘Ctirad’, 2C DNA = 8.76 pg), and holoploid, 2C genome size (i.e., DNA content of entire non

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. Summary of previously reported chromosome numbers and holoploid (2C) genome size measured in picograms (pg) for Styrax spp. investigated in this survey. Polyploidy has played a significant role in the evolution of flowering plants, acting as a

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sample with three samples for each species. Holoploid, 2C genome sizes for each sample were calculated as: 2C = DNA content of standard × (mean fluorescence value of sample ÷ mean fluorescence value of the standard). The relationship between genome sizes

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