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James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden and Patrick E. McCullough

(dithiopyr 40WP) formulations that have been used in the turfgrass industry for several years. A new, water-based formulation of dithiopyr (dithiopyr 2EW) received EPA labeling in May 2008 ( Anonymous, 2008a ). Published data describing the PRE and POST

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D.E. Yarborough and T.M. Hess

In order to assess the effect of hexazinone formulation on movement through the soil profile, soil samples were taken on 25 June 1995, 25 Aug. 1995, 22 Nov. 1995, and 24 May 1996 (1, 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively) at 0–5, 5–15, and 15–25 cm from plots treated 25 May 1995 with either hexazinone liquid formulation of Velpar L at 1.1 kg/ha, or as a granular in Pronone 10G, Pronone MG at 11.1 kg/ha, or Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) at 220 kg/ha impregnated with Velpar L at 1.1 kg/ha and an untreated control. The hexazinone liquid had the most leaching, the Velpar DAP formulation had the least leaching, and the Pronone formulation were intermediate. If hexazinone leaching into groundwater is a concern a particular site, then the Velpar/DAP fertilizer or Pronone formulations should be used over the liquid formulation. This project was done under a low rainfall year, 1995, and it should be reassessed with the new Velpar DF formulation and irrigation.

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Victorine Alleyne and Robert D. Hagenmaier

An experimental candelilla-shellac formulation for coating apples (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) was developed and compared with commercial shellac-based and carnauba-shellac-based coatings on `Gala' and `Delicious' apples by determining effects on quality attributes, respiration, and internal atmospheres. Fruit were stored at 5 °C for 7 days followed by storage at 21 °C for 14 days. Gloss of `Delicious' apples coated with candelilla-shellac formulations containing 7% to 34% shellac increased with increasing shellac concentrations. `Gala' and `Delicious' apples coated with a candelilla formulation containing 34% shellac maintained quality similar to those coated with commercial carnauba-shellac-based coatings, as indicated by gloss, firmness, internal CO2, O2 and ethanol levels, steady-state respiration rate, weight loss, and flavor. By comparison, shellac-coated fruit maintained the highest gloss throughout the experimental period. Shellac-coated apples were also firmer, contained more ethanol, and received higher flavor scores than did apples receiving other coating treatments. Gloss of all coated fruit decreased with time, although shellac-coated fruit lost less gloss over the 21-day storage period. Analysis of gloss, firmness, fruit respiration, ethanol, weight loss, and flavor demonstrate that the candelilla formulation containing 34% shellac is competitive with current commercial carnauba-based apple-coating products.

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Daniel F. Warnock

Late season control of whitefly is problematic in many production ranges as systemic insecticides may not provide full season control. Most commercially available contact insecticides are not labeled for use on fully colored poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima, plants due to potential phytotoxicity or residue on colored bracts. Recent formulation changes in TriStar make late season applications possible. This study assessed phytotoxicity and residue impacts of two formulations of TriStar on potted poinsettias. On 4 Aug. 2004, rooted cuttings of 47 poinsettia cultivars obtained from four commercial suppliers were transplanted into pots containing a soilless medium. A total of 235 cuttings were used to arrive at five pots per cultivar. Plants were grown using standard production techniques. On 11 Nov. 2004, all plants were fully colored and treated with TriStar 70 WSP or TriStar 30SG at maximum label rates. Phytotoxicity and residue levels were assessed 7 days later using a 1 to 9 visual scale. Overall the formulations had few negative impacts on poinsettias. Phytotociticy ratings were minimal for most cultivars; however, some cultivars, such as `Silverstar Red' expressed an elevated level of phytotoxicity. Dark colored cultivars showed more residue than light colored cultivars. The TirStar 30SG formulation had the least amount of residue. TriStar 30SG may be an acceptable insecticide for late season control of whitefly on poinsettia crops. Producers are cautioned to test cultivars for phytotoxicity before applying to an entire crop as some cultivars are sensitive to TriStar 30SG.

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Mathews L. Paret, Aaron J. Palmateer and Gary W. Knox

activity and yield improvement potential in many crops ( Lu et al., 2006 ; Owolade and Ogulenti, 2008 ). The objective of this study was to evaluate the photocatalytic effect of a TiO 2 /Zn nanoparticle formulation on a Xanthomonas sp. infecting roses

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John F. Ahrens, Larry J. Kuhns, Tracey L. Harpster and Todd L. Mervosh

In 1995, Monsanto Chemical Co. announced that they would replace Roundup herbicide with Roundup Pro for use in the ornamentals and turf markets. Both products contain 4 lb a.i./gal glyphosate, but Roundup Pro contains a more-active surfactant. Though Roundup was labeled as a nonselective herbicide, dormant conifers were found to have varying degrees of resistance to it. Directed sprays that hit the lower two-thirds of many dormant conifers became common practice in the industry. Because the surfactant in Roundup Pro increases the activity of the glyphosate, a series of trials were initiated in 1996 in Connecticut, Pennsylvania, and Vermont in which four glyphosate formulations were applied to a variety of dormant conifers. Roundup, Roundup Pro, Glyfos, and Accord (with and without surfactant) were applied either over-the-top or as directed sprays to the lower 18 inches of the plants at rates between 0.5 and 3 lb a.i./acre. Plants treated included globe arborvitae; upright yew; Canadian hemlock; Colorado, Norway and white spruce; Douglas fir; eastern white pine; and balsam, Canaan, and Fraser fir. In a preliminary study, injury to the spruces in the form of dwarfed and chlorotic new growth was primarily associated with fresh pruning wounds. Accord plus surfactant and Roundup Pro injured more spruces than Roundup, but injury was slight. No injury was observed in upright yew with any formulation at rates up to 0.75 lb a.i./acre. Injury to arborvitae was greatest with Accord plus surfactant, intermediate with Roundup Pro, and least with Roundup. Results are inconclusive at this time, but the results of additional studies available early in the next growing season.will be presented.

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John M. Ruter

Granular and liquid formulations of paclobutrazol were tested to evaluate the growth and flowering response of butterfly bush (Buddleia davidii Franch. 'Dubonnet'). At the rates tested (5, 10, 20, and 40 mg ai·pot–1), the granular formulation reduced the growth index, plant height, shoot dry weight, total plant biomass, number of panicles and panicle length to a greater degree than the liquid formulation applied as a drench. Both formulations reduced total plant biomass and increased the root:shoot ratio compared to the control. All rates of the granular formulation above 5 mg ai · pot–1 produced non-marketable plants. Since no phytotoxicity was observed with any treatment, the application of paclobutrazol to control the growth of butterfly-bush may be useful if the correct formulation and rate of application are chosen.

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Melissa B. Riley

Herbicide use in containerized plant production nurseries is a vital tool for weed management and the production of plants desired by the consumer. Clemson University researchers have conducted studies aimed at determining the amount of herbicide runoff during normal nursery operation, if herbicides accumulate in containment ponds at nurseries, and how herbicide runoff could be reduced. A 2-year study at commercial nurseries found that herbicide concentrations were higher in containment ponds soon after herbicide application, when compared with months with less herbicide application; and herbicides did not accumulate over the 2-year period. Herbicide runoff was greatest immediately after application and up to 15% of the herbicide applied was lost in the first irrigation event after application when using more water soluble herbicides. Bed material and herbicide formulation were also important in determining the amount of herbicide lost. Total losses were highest from plastic- and fabric-covered beds when using granular formulations and highest from gravel beds when spray formulations were used. The combination of using cyclic irrigation and grass waterways resulted in a reduction of about 25% of isoxaben loss when compared with clay and gravel waterways with continuous irrigation. The effects of reduced herbicide treatments compared to standard spray schedules were evaluated on herbicide transport, weed development, and plant growth and health. Results indicated that plant marketability was not affected, and total herbicide runoff was significantly reduced. Based on these studies, several recommendations can be made to commercial container plant production nurseries, which should reduce herbicide runoff and thereby reduce the environmental concerns associated with nurseries.

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Adriane Cannon*, Dennis Deyton, Carl Sams and William Klingeman

Two experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate soy-bean oil (SO) formulations for effects on powdery mildew (PM) and photosynthesis of dogwood trees. In the first experiment, one-year-old potted trees were sprayed with different formulations of 2% SO one day before exposure to PM. The formulations were emulsified with: teric/termul, lauriciden, lecithin, lecithin/MD 1, lecithin/MD 2, or Latron B-1956. A commercial formulation of Golden Natur'l was also used. The trees were arranged in a completely randomized design with six replications and eight treatments. In the second experiment, trees were sprayed 4 days after initial exposure to PM with the same treatments and arranged in a similar experimental design. The severity of PM infection was rated using the scale: 1 = 0%, 2 = 1% to 3%, 3 = 4% to 6%, 4 = 7% to 12%, 5 = 13% to 25%, 6 = 26% to 50%, 7 = 51% to 87%, and 8 = 88% to 100% of leaves visually displaying PM. The net photosynthetic (Pn) rates were measured using an infrared gas analyzer. In the first experiment, trees sprayed pre-inoculation with Golden Natur'l, lecithin, lecithin/MD 1, or Latron B-1956 formulation had less PM than control trees at 19 and 24 days after spraying (DAS). Pn of leaves sprayed with lecithin or Latron B-1956 formulations had 68% and 40% lower Pn rates, respectively, of the control leaves at one DAS. However, by 11 DAS, none of the SO formulations significantly affected Pn rates. Leaves of plants (expt. 2) sprayed with teric/termul, lauriciden, lecithin, and lecithin/MD 2 formulations had less PM than control trees at 28 DAS. All formulations reduced Pn rates at 6 DAS, with only Golden Natur'l treated leaves recovering to rates similar to control leaves by 15 DAS.

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J. J. Knabke and H. G. Hancock

Talstar 10WP insecticide/Miticide (bifenthrin) is used for the control of a broad spectrum of economic pests on ornamentals. Over 100 species of greenhouse and field–grown plants, trees and shrubs have been shown to exhibit no phytotoxic response to the wettable powder formulation. Research efforts with alternative bifenthrin, formulations, which exhibit equivalent pest efficacy and lack of phytotoxicity, may also provide unique application opportunities.