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Kristin L. Getter and Dale W. Rozeboom

Peat is a commonly used substrate component in floriculture production ( Nelson, 2003 ). Recently, there has been interest in reducing peat use in horticulture for a variety of reasons, including environmental concerns of peat harvesting ( Larcher

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Joseph Thomas

Floriculture is growing at a frenetic pace in India. From a few units in 1990, nearly hundred units are either fully operational or at various stages of implementation. Almost seventy of these produce rose for the cut flower export market. The average unit size is two hectare under poly-cover. Anthurium, carnation, chrysanthemum, orchids and gerbera comprise the other cut flower producing units. Technology has come mostly from Holland, with Israel now giving severe competition to the Dutch. Germany, France, United Kingdom, and New Zealand are the other countries involved in technology transfer. Many units have the fan and pad system for temperature control along with drip irrigation and computer mediated operations. Most units use natural soil as the medium of growth whereas some have a combination of sand and natural soil and a few have adopted complete sand bed culture as practiced by Israeli growers. These hybrid as well as the state-of-the-art floriculture technologies are competing for the Indian market and the next few years will determine the system that is most suitable for adoption under local conditions. The Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), a wing of the Commerce Ministry of the Government of India, and the National Horticulture Board have indeed provided substantial support for the growth of Indian floriculture Industry. Meanwhile, more and more entrepreneurs are, on their own, setting up cold storages and operating cold trucks near major airports to maintain appropriate temperatures from harvest to destination. It is widely expected that more than 50% of the existing floriculture units will make good whereas the remaining may not survive either due to sourcing of unsuitable technologies or lack of expertise in floriculture production and management as well as international marketing prowess. There is also consensus that no single foreign technology giver is capable of meeting adequately the total needs in the Indian context and often it is a matter of the collaborators learning together. What seems certain is that India will, by the year 2000, be a major player in international floriculture because of the diverse agroclimatically suitable locations, lower labor cost, and talented human resource.

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Ryan W. Dickson, Paul R. Fisher, Sonali R. Padhye and William R. Argo

Floriculture species differ in susceptibility to developing micronutrient disorders, particularly iron and manganese toxicity or deficiency, depending on the efficiency at which micronutrients are taken up by plant roots and the solubility of

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Debra Schwarze and John E. Erwin

A phone survey was conducted to assess the total impact of the floriculture industry on the Minnesota economy. Data were collected from wholesale growers, garden center retailers, chain stores, and florists. Information was gathered on `hard good' sales associated with greenhouse produced plants as well as plant sales. In addition, data on labor and salaries associated with the production, distribution, and retailing of plants and goods associated with the floriculture industry was collected. This data will be provided to local flower growers organizations to enable these groups to actively lobby for their concerns within the state.

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Heidi M. Wollaeger, Kristin L. Getter and Bridget K. Behe

charge a premium for floriculture products. Some consumers may value reduced pesticide usage compared with traditional production methods. In a survey of ≈400 Canadian consumers, pest management was considered as the second most important factor (≈25

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Grace R. Price

This presentation describes market demands and breeding methodologies that in combination drive development of new floriculture products. In recent years, radical shifts in the direction and pace of product innovation have taken place. New product introductions and development in petunias will be reviewed to demonstrate how breeders approach these new challenges. Parameters of product performance and selection will be discussed as these apply to the midwest, as well as to the rest of the world.

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Neil S. Mattson and W. Roland Leatherwood

conditions. It has been suggested ( Ma and Yamaji, 2006 ), and many researchers operate under the assumption, that high rates of Si absorption and tissue concentration are a prerequisite for Si benefits; hence, it is desirable to determine which floriculture

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Rik van Gorsel

Intercontinental trade in floriculture products exceeds US$ 1,250 mln annually. One fourth are tropical commodities. Most of the US$ 200 mln of tropical floriculture products imported into western Europe arrive by airplane and are transhipped before arriving at the country of destination. For cut flowers, it takes four to seven days from arrival at the port of entry to destination at the consumer. Mode of transport and market structure have as result that postharvest requirements for individual products are seldomly met. Potential vase life is reduced by five to ten percent for every day spent in the marketing chain. Because quality loss is often invisible, there is a necessity to have measures of internal quality. The only measure currently being used is a test on bacterial contamination. Internal quality tests based on carbohydrates, chlorophyll fluorescence or near-infrared spectra are being developed. Control on the application of pretreatments against bacteria, ethylene and drought needs to be intensified. Extension efforts continue to emphasize hygene and temperature control.

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Kenneth R. Tourjee, James Harding and Thomas G. Byrne

The development of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex. Hooker) as a floricultural crop is traced from its collection as a botanical novelty in South Africa to its establishment as a commercial crop in the 1930s. The origin of the cultivated germplasm, G. jamesonii and G. viridifolia (DC) Schultz- Bipontinus, is discussed, as well as breeding work that occurred in Europe and the United States. The contributions of the two species to the cultivated germplasm is unknown. Early breeding in Europe was conducted by RI. Lynch at the Cambridge Botanic Gardens in England, R. Adnet at La Rosarie in Antibes, France; and by C. Sprenger in Italy. In the United States, early work was done at estates in New Jersey by Herrington and Atkins, and by the commercial growers Jaenicke and the J.L. Childs' Seed Co. Establishing the cold hardiness of the crop for temperate climates was an early goal of horticulturists and breeders. Much of the cultivated germplasm can be traced to material that passed through Cambridge and Antibes.

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James E. Altland, James C. Locke, Wendy L. Zellner and Jennifer K. Boldt

.f.) ( Smith et al., 2004 ), and poinsettia ( Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotzsch) ( Bateman, 1962 ). Ideal pH for most greenhouse floriculture crops ranges from 5.8 to 6.2 ( Argo and Fisher, 2002 ). DL [CaMg(CO 3 )] is often used to elevate substrate pH