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The compatible fertilization of angiosperms is initiated through the hydration of the pollen at the stigma and the germination of the pollen tube. After entering the interpapillar cell space, the tube grows in the stylar canal or transmitting tissue

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of fertilizers is required to maintain or increase plant N reserves ( Millard and Grelet 2010 ). Fall N fertilization is a practice that can increase plant reserves by diverting the applied N directly to reserve organs during a period when

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of fertilization best management practices that allow improving agricultural environmental and economic sustainability of crops ( Roberts, 2007 ). The implementation of these best management practices is tightly linked to four aspects of nutrient

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Abstract

Ground application of urea increased yields of ‘Nonpareil’ almond (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) by increasing the number of flowers per tree rather than by increasing blossom receptivity and percentage fruit-set. Hand pollination of flowers on caged limbs indicated that blossom receptivity declined between 3 and 6 days after anthesis.

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Abstract

Greenhouse-grown ‘Dania’ aphelandra receiving 0.9 kg N, 0.4 kg P and 0.8 kg K/100 m2 per month were as tall as plants receiving 2 or 3 × levels and general appearance was equal. Plants watered daily or semi-weekly were larger than those watered weekly. Best plants after 8 weeks indoors under 0.8 klx of cool white fluorescent light for 12 hours daily were those produced on the lowest fertilizer level or those watered daily at any fertilizer level. Soluble salts measured on a 1.2 by volume basis at experiment termination indicated high plant grade was associated with salts levels generally below 1000 ppm.

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plant growth and influences plant quality, by affecting leaf weight, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, and plant size ( Bar-Tal et al., 2001 ; Wang et al., 2012 ). N deficiency is commonly caused by inadequate fertilization regimes in which N supply

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). Burkholder et al. (1992) reported surface-water quality degradation at nitrate (NO 3 − ) levels as low as 0.05 to 0.1 mg·L −1 . Excessive or poorly timed fertilization of residential landscapes can result in water quality degradation as nutrients

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( Kingston et al., 2017 ; Machado et al., 2014 ; Puls, 1999 ; Retamales and Hancock, 2012 ). Despite the great influence of fertilization strategies on the root-zone environment, limited research has evaluated nutrient management strategies using

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fertilization, often accounting for up to half of annual N applied ( Bauer et al., 2012 ). Many practitioners and researchers consider the ideal N application timing to be shortly after shoot growth ceases, a timing referred to as late-fall N fertilization

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, current prevention and control of the disease mainly focus on the selection of disease-resistant varieties, rational fertilization and pruning, and other agricultural control, supplemented by chemical control. Previous research found that the ingredients

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