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74 ORAL SESSION 14 (Abstr. 520–527) Cross-commodity/No commodity: Human Issues/Extension/Technology Transfer Tuesday, 25 July, 8:00–10:00 a.m

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87 ORAL SESSION 29 (Abstr. 206211) Cross-commodity: Extension

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39 ORAL SESSION 9 (Abstr. 063–070) Education and Extension

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44 POSTER SESSION 7 (Abstr. 381–397) Extension/Technology Transfer/Public Education Monday, 24 July, 1:00–2:00 p.m.

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From colonial times to the present, America has prized education as the provider of individual opportunity, as well as our national progress. The value of practical education was delineated clearly with the passage of the Land-grant “Morrill Act” by the U.S. Congress, signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862. The Land-grant Act provided grants of federal land to every state that agreed to establish at least one college to teach agriculture and the mechanic arts along with other scientific and classical subjects. This and subsequent legislation to support research and extension developed the “trilogy of American ingenuity”—the blended roles of teaching, research, and public service that form both the mission and strength of America's land-grant universities.

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( Evans et al., 1997 ). Plant growth regulators that limit shoot length extension are used most often to improve the light environment in the canopy for better fruit color development and quality. P-Ca (Apogee ® ) is a primary plant bioregulator in pome

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The focus of this paper is the Third World and the changes in thinking on the concept and practice of extension that have emerged over the past decade. Given the fact that the majority of the population of Third World countries in the three continents Asia, Africa, and the Americas continue to depend on some form of agricultural production for a livelihood, extension continues to play a dominant role in agricultural development. Indeed, it could be argued that agricultural extension is the fundamental instrument of agricultural development in most Third World countries and that any failing to achieve this development should be laid at the door of extension services. Most Third World countries have some form of agricultural extension service, and these services are the constant attention of academics and professionals who seek to improve their delivery; yet, improvement in this delivery seems despairingly to elude us. Few will deny the commitment to agricultural extension, the potential in terms of the production of technology that is continually generated, or the professional expertise that guides and directs the delivery, but unquestionably all of this seems to have little impact on the miserable livelihoods of the vast majority. The World Bank more euphemistically concludes that the economic achievements of the past decade or so do not seem to have led to a better standard of living for the vast majority of poor people in the Third World. (23)

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114 ORAL SESSION 31 (Abstr. 219-226) Extension: Education

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44 POSTER SESSION 7 (Abstr. 381–397) Extension/Technology Transfer/Public Education Monday, 24 July, 1:00–2:00 p.m.

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