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Norman B. Best, Xingang Wang, Scottie Brittsan, Eric Dean, Seth J. Helfers, Ryan Homburg, Mariah L. Mobley, Tiffeny L. Spindler, Bofan Xie, Menglu Zhang, Paul M. Hasegawa, Robert J. Joly, David Rhodes and Brian P. Dilkes

. Introduction of ornamental plants is essential to diversify an urban landscape ( Suleiman et al., 2009 ). Dwarf cultivars which permit layering by height across the landscape are commercially significant in a wide variety of landscape plant species, including

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Dongyan Hu and Ralph Scorza

Dwarf peach trees have been studied since the first recorded description by Monceau in 1786 (in Monet and Salesses, 1975 ). In 1867, Strong (1867) and Hooper (1867) described dwarf peach tree phenotypes. Conners (1928) observed semidwarf

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Eugene K. Blythe and Jeff L. Sibley

Dwarf Burford’ holly (synonyms: ‘Burfordii Nana’ and ‘Burfordii Compacta’) was first discovered in 1947 among vegetatively propagated hollies ( Galle, 1997 ) and has historically been one of the major holly cultivars in ornamental nursery

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Shaoyun Lu, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu, Zhenfei Guo and Bingru Huang

turfgrasses with alterations in various morphological traits. The most frequent mutant character from the irradiated plants is dwarfism. Gamma irradiation has been used to develop the dwarf-type bermudagrass cultivars TifEagle, Tift 94, and Tifway II ( Burton

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Chuanhao Chen, Shaoyun Lu, Youguang Chen, Zhongcheng Wang, Yuejing Niu and Zhenfei Guo

tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in various major crops ( Ahloowalia and Maluszynski, 2001 ). The most frequent mutant character from the irradiated plants is dwarfism ( Erickson et al., 1979 ). Mutants of st. augustinegrass ( Stenotaphrum secundatum

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Haishan An, Feixiong Luo, Ting Wu, Yi Wang, Xuefeng Xu, Xinzhong Zhang and Zhenhai Han

depth) impact the reproductive and vegetative growth of apple trees ( Yao et al., 2006 ). Detailed knowledge about fine root production, mortality, and spatial distribution of dwarfing rootstocks is currently insufficient to understand the dwarfing

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Marisa M. Wall

The Dwarf Brazilian banana ( Musa sp., group AAB) is grown and marketed widely in the Hawaiian islands, where it is known as the “apple” banana ( Simmonds, 1954 ). These specialty bananas contain three times more vitamin C and 1.5 times more

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Gennaro Fazio, Yizhen Wan, Dariusz Kviklys, Leticia Romero, Richard Adams, David Strickland and Terence Robinson

apple fruit production were likely realized by European fruit fanciers who used dwarf apple trees as the graft recipients of vigorous apple cultivars, and used the same dwarf or dwarfing apple combinations in espalier production of apple fruit ( Monceau

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François Mademba-Sy, Zacharie Lemerre-Desprez and Stéphane Lebegin

has been Flying Dragon trifoliate orange ( Bitters et al., 1979 ) in association with good yield and fruit quality ( Roose, 1986 ). The term “dwarfing” can only be applied to rootstocks that reduce tree volume by at least 75%, thus limiting tree height

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Liping Zhang, Chen Shen, Jipeng Wei and Wenyan Han

tea plant using 6-BA after heavy pruning in summer. The adult tea plants of Longjing 43 were used in the present study. The promoting effect of exogenous 6-BA on tea plant dwarfing, lateral bud sprouting in advance, lateral branch growth, and spring