American beech ( Fagus grandifolia ) trees in the northeastern parts of its range have been devastated by beech bark disease (BBD), an introduced insect–fungus disease complex incited by an initial infestation by the scale insect, Cryptococcus
solute transport is warranted to develop a more direct and thorough understanding of water and solute transport in soilless systems. Physical properties of the pine-bark and sand blends commonly used in the mid-Atlantic and southeastern U.S. nursery
Container crops in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) are grown primarily in Douglas fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco] bark (DFB). Similar to Loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) bark in the southeast United States, DFB comprises the highest
’ hakonechloa [ Hakonechloa macra (Makino) Honda] grew best in a 3 pine bark: 2 sphagnum peat: 1 sand (by volume) substrate with no DL amendment (pH 4.5). They speculated this favorable response was due to the plant’s adaptation to the low pH soil found in the
In the eastern United States, pine bark is the predominate substrate component in outdoor nursery container plant production. Pine bark is a byproduct of the timber industry and is stripped off logs following harvest. Once the removed pine bark is
Zn content was higher in trunk bark (cambium to outer scrapings) than in the adjacent wood in healthy and blight-affected sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) and grapefruit (C. paradisi MacF.) trees. Zn levels were elevated in trunk bark and wood of blight-affected trees on rough lemon (C. limon (L.) Burnt, f.) rootstock, whereas affected seedling trees or trees on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco) rootstock that were tested had high Zn levels only in the bark. Bark Zn content was much higher above the bud union than below in blight affected trees on rough lemon or trifoliate (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.) rootstocks, but Zn content was high above the bud union in healthy trees only on rough lemon rootstock. The inner half of the bark, an area representative of the active secondary phloem, had much more Zn than the outer half of the bark or the most recently developed xylem. The outer half of the bark served as a barrier against outside contamination. Accumulation of Zn in wood occurred only when the phloem Zn was high.
Ground pine bark pH ranges from 4.1 to 5.1 before amendment with other components or fertilizers ( Brown and Pokorny, 1975 ; Gillman et al., 1998 ; Wright et al., 1999a , 1999b ). Limestone is traditionally used to raise the pH of pine bark
NO3-N concentrations in 35-year-old ‘Hamlin’ orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) and ‘Marsh’ grapefruit (C. paradisi Macf.) trees on rough lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) rootstock were highest in the feeder roots (212-962 ppm), followed by the leaves (160-300 ppm) and trunk wood (0-304 ppm). Only in 3 of 10 orange trees and in 1 of 10 grapefruit trees was NO3-N detected in the bark. Nitrate-N concentration in the leaves and the wood and the percentage of NO3-N in total N in the wood were higher in orange than in grapefruit trees.
Pine bark is a widely used substrate component in the southeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the U.S. nursery industry for the production of container-grown, woody ornamental crops. As a result of the high porosity and relatively low water
There has been a considerable amount of interest in alternative substrates for both nursery and greenhouse crop production in recent years. This is due primarily to a decrease in domestic production of pine bark (PB), from which the primary