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Zhuangjun Zhao, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Tao Hu, Yan Xie, Longxing Hu and Jinmin Fu

environments. Therefore, plant roots have evolved several physiological and metabolic strategies to adapt to/tolerate salinity stress to survive in saline conditions. For instance, plants adjust the content of free amino acids and modify carbohydrate metabolism

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Hening Hu, Darrell Sparks and John J. Evans

Greenhouse-grown pecan [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] seedlings were treated with S as SO4 -2 (0 to 4 mm) to determine the effect of S on its vegetative growth, chlorophyll concentration, nutrition, and free and protein amino acid content. Sulfur deficiency symptoms occurred when leaf S was ≈1.5 mg·g-1 dry weight or less. Chlorophyll concentration and growth increased curvilinearly with leaf S and had not peaked when leaf S was 2.7 mg·g-1 dry weight. The N : S ratio in the leaf and leaf S were equally reliable indicators of the S status of the plant, but the optimum ratio was less than the value of 15 found in other plant species. Calcium and Mg decreased with S application, suggesting a direct SO4 -2 or NH4 + effect. The concentration of all other elements determined was elevated, in one or more plant parts, when S deficiency symptoms were visible. The most conspicuous effect of S deficiency on N metabolism was a greatly expanded free amino acid pool, mainly arginine. The concentration of free amino acids decreased exponentially with leaf S. Conversely, protein amino acid was inhibited by S deficiency and increased with leaf S concentration or, perhaps more specifically, with methiouine.

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D. Ke, M. Mateos, J. Siriphanich, C. Li and A.A. Kader

Leaf tissues of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were kept in air or in air enriched with 5% to 20% CO at OC for 2 to 9 days followed by transfer to air or to CO2 2enhanced atmospheres at 20C for 1 day to study the mode of CO2 action on metabolism of organic and amino acids. The 20% <ch> treatment caused a decrease in intracellular pH, which alone or, in combination with, other CO2 effects, inhibited succinate dehydrogenase but activated glutamate decarboxylase. This resulted in an accumulation of succinate and γ-aminobutyrate and a reduction in concentrations of malate and glutamate. Elevated CO2 atmospheres did not affect other organic and amino acids. These effects of CO2 were influenced by temperature and concentration/duration of exposure to CO2, while type of tissue (green vs. white) and cultivars of lettuce generally had no influence.

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Yehoshua Saranga, David Rhodes and Jules Janick

Tolerance to partial desiccation and amino acid composition of celery (Apium graveolens L. cv. SB 12) somatic embryos were investigated under various culture durations and with exogenous application of 1 μm ABA, proline, and/or γ -aminobutyrate (GABA). ABA consistently increased tolerance to partial desiccation and elevated proline and GABA content of embryos. The changes in tolerance to partial desiccation associated with changes in culture duration (optimum 9 to 10 days) correlated with embryo proline content. Exogenous proline increased embryo proline content and tolerance to partial desiccation. Exogenous GABA increased embryo GABA content and tolerance to partial desiccation only when applied in combination with proline. Chemical name used: abscisic acid (ABA).

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J. Pablo Morales-Payan and William M. Stall

Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of the biostimulant amino levulinic acid (5-ALA) on canopy and root competition of transplanted sweet and purple basils with the weed slender amaranth (Amaranthusviridus). Before transplanting, basil plants were sprayed with an aqueous solution of 5-ALA (0 and 15 mg·L-1 a.i.). Basil and amaranth were grown in plastic 19-L containers either: 1) individually (one plant per container = no interference); 2) one basil plant and one amaranth plant together in the same container (= full interference); 3) one basil plant and one amaranth plant together in the same container, training the shoots apart to avoid canopy interference (= below ground interference); or 4) basil and amaranth grown in different containers set side by side (= above ground interference). When 5-ALA was not applied, full-interference from slender amaranth reduced sweet basil shoot yield by 33%, and purple basil shoot yield by 48%. Above ground interference from slender amaranth was about 65% of the total interference effect. Basil plants treated with 5-ALA were less affected by amaranth interference than untreated basil plants, but the magnitude of the 5-ALA effect was greater in sweet basil than in purple basil. 5-ALA increased the yields of weed-free sweet basil and purple basil by about 15% and 10%, respectively.

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla and Emily B. Merewitz

species. Therefore, evaluating the function of plant metabolites such as GABA that may promote the drought tolerance of perennial ryegrass and other turfgrasses is needed. GABA is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid conserved from prokaryotes to

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Yali He, Xiaozhong Liu and Bingru Huang

Various physiological processes may deteriorate in response to increasing temperatures, contributing to the decline in turf quality for cool-season turfgrasses during heat stress. This study was performed to investigate metabolic changes (membrane lipid peroxidation, total protein content, amino acid content, and protease activity) associated with turf quality decline for creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera Huds.) in response to gradually increasing temperatures for a short duration and prolonged exposure to lethally high temperature. Plants were subjected to increasing temperatures of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 °C for 7 days at each level of temperature [gradual heat stress (GHS)] or exposed to high temperature of 40 °C for 28 days [prolonged heat stress (PHS)] in growth chambers. During the GHS treatment, significant decline in turf quality occurred when plants were exposed to 30 °C for 7 days; simultaneously, malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased and total protein content in shoots decreased significantly compared to those at 20 °C. Protease activity increased at 25 °C and then decreased as temperature was elevated from 30 to 40 °C during the GHS treatment. Amino acid content decreased under GHS, beginning at 25 °C. Under the PHS treatment, turf quality declined and MDA content increased significantly, beginning at 14 days of PHS, while total protein content decreased at 7 days of PHS. Protease activity and amino acid content increased at 7 days of PHS, and then declined with longer stress duration. Our results indicated that protease activity, and amino acid and total protein content were more responsive to GHS or PHS than that of lipid peroxidation and turf quality. Changes in metabolic parameters of protease activity, amino acid and total protein content, and lipid peroxidation may contribute to leaf senescence and poor turf performance under severe or prolonged heat stress conditions for creeping bentgrass.

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Peter C. Andersen, Brent V. Brodbeck and Russell F. Mizell 111

The effects and interactions of water stress and nutrient solution on water relations and concentrations of amino acids, organic acids and sugars in xylem fluid of `Methley' plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) and `Carolina Beauty' crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) during midday were determined. Container-grown plants were irrigated with water or nutrient solution (i.e., osmolarity = 138 mm) for 15 days, then irrigation was either continued or terminated for the next 5 days. The experiments were analyzed as factorial designs for each species separately, with the nutrient solution and irrigation status the last 5 days as the main factors. Xylem fluid tension increased ≈ 2- to 3-fold and leaf conductance to water vapor and transpiration were reduced ≈ 10-fold by withholding irrigation for both species; plant water relations of L. indica were also influenced by the nutrient solution. For both species, the osmolarity of xylem fluid was not altered by withholding irrigation. The predominant organic compounds quantified in both species were amides (i.e., glutamine and asparagine), arginine, and citric and malic acids. Sugars represented a small proportion (i.e., generally ≤ 1%) of total osmolarity. Irrigation altered the chemical profile of amino acids and organic acids to a greater degree than the nutrient solution. Water stress induced a 3-fold increase in total organic acids in xylem fluid of both species. The osmolarity and the concentration of most organic compounds in xylem fluid of P. salicina were not significantly affected by the nutrient solution. Arginine increased markedly in concentration by withholding irrigation or with the application of nutrient solution for L. indica. The concentration of most organic compounds did not vary greatly in response to variations in soil water or nutrient status. In conclusion, soil water-or nutrient-mediated changes in plant water relations exceeded changes in xylem fluid chemistry.

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Pinghai Ding, Shufu Dong, Lailiang Cheng, Guihong Bi and Leslie H. Fuchigami

Near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of fruit and nut trees. Potted almond and bench-grafted Fuji/M26 trees were fertigated during the growing season with different N levels by modifying the Hoagland to create different levels of nitrogen and carbohydrates in plant tissues during dormancy. Dried, ground, and sieved shoot, shank, and root samples were uniformly packed into NIR cells and scanned with a Foss NIRSystem 6500 monochromator from 400 to 2500 nm. Statistical and multiple linear regression methods were used to derive a standard error of performance and the correlation between NIR reading and standard chemical composition analysis (anthrone, Kjedahl and Ninhydrin methods for carbohydrate, total N, and amino acid analysis, respectively) were determined. The multiple determination coefficients (R 2) of apple and almond tissues were 0.9949 and 0.9842 for total nitrogen, 0.9971 and 0.9802 for amino acid, and 0.8889 and 0.8687 for nonstructural carbohydrate, respectively.

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Akira Kuriyama, Kunpei Kawata, Katsumi Watanabe, Fumio Kawai and Masao Kanamori