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Palms (Arecaceae) growing in containers have similar nutritional requirements as other tropical ornamental plants and grow well with fertilizers having an elemental ratio of 3N:0.4P:1.7K. However, palms growing in the landscape or field nurseries have very different nutritional requirements from dicotyledonous plants. Whereas nitrogen (N) is the primary limiting nutrient element in container production, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), and iron (Fe) deficiencies are more widespread than N deficiency in most landscape soils. Because palms have a single apical meristem, deficiencies of K, Mn, or B can be fatal. In addition to insufficient nutrients in the soil, palm nutrient deficiencies can be caused by high soil pH, certain types of organic matter, deep planting, poor soil aeration, cold soil temperatures, and nutrient imbalances. Correction of nutritional deficiencies in palms can take up to 2 years or longer and therefore prevention of deficiencies by proper fertilization is important. Research has shown that high N:K ratio fertilizers applied directly, or indirectly via application to adjacent turfgrass in a landscape, can exacerbate K and Mg deficiencies in palms, sometimes fatally. For sandy Atlantic coastal plain soils in the southeastern United States, an analysis of 8N–0.9P–10K–4Mg plus micronutrients has been recommended.

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Palms (Arecaceae) are affected by a variety of pathogens, most of which are fungi. We detail pathogens, host ranges, disease description, diagnosis and epidemiology as well as management for the significant, usually fatal, diseases affecting palms grown in the continental United States and Hawaii. These include fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. canariensis) of canary island date palm (Phoenix canariensis), diamond scale (Phaeochoropsis neowashingtoniae), ganoderma butt rot (Ganoderma zonatum), lethal yellowing (Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae subgroup 16SrIV-A), and diseases caused by Nalanthamala (Gliocladium), Phytophthora, and Thielaviopsis. We have omitted the leaf spot and minor blight diseases that often affect palms but pose no long-term consequence to their health and survival. Visual symptoms of lethal palm diseases are often similar, necessitating the isolation or detection of the pathogen with cultural, microscopic, or molecular methods. Management of palm diseases is varied, often requiring in-depth knowledge of the biology of the pathogen and its' infection process. Quarantine, eradication, sanitation, and proper species selection and culture are necessary practices to limit the spread of new and existing diseases of palms in landscapes and nurseries.

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Palms (Arecaceae) are perhaps the most distinctive group of ornamental landscape plants, comprising a natural group that even lay people can readily identify. Palms are increasingly common in outdoor landscapes in tropical and subtropical regions

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Landscape palms (Arecaceae) are pruned (i.e., leaves removed) to avoid the hazard of falling fronds, to remove diseased or brown leaves, and, in some cases, to minimize growth by diminishing photosynthetic capacity. In studies at two California locations (Long Beach and Irvine), even complete leaf removal every 3 to 4 months for 18 to 21 months resulted in similar new leaf production by queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana) or windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortunei) compared with no pruning or “10 and 2” pruning (industry standard pruning referring to the palm canopy visually beginning at the 10 o'clock position and ending at the 2 o'clock position on a clock face). By contrast, complete leaf removal reduced the number of new leaves of california fan palm (Washingtonia filifera), young mexican fan palm [MFP (Washingtonia robusta)], and taller, more mature MFP by 30%, 23%, and 21% compared with no pruning and “10 and 2” pruning. Leaf petiole length, leaf blade length, leaf blade width, and total palm height were also reduced 19% to 43% after complete leaf pruning compared with no and “10 and 2” pruning of young and more mature MFP. Although “10 and 2” pruning did not reduce growth of any palms, pruning all but the four newest leaves reduced leaf petiole length by 21% for the taller MFP. An important consideration for palm disease control is that tools used for pruning may harbor pathogen inoculum. Flaming pruning saws with a propane torch for 10 s reduced total fungal colonies and palm pathogenic fungi recovered on a selective medium by 95%. Increasing our understanding of palm response to leaf removal and how to minimize unintended consequences of pruning, such as the spread of disease, is an important part of improving palm maintenance.

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found trees, palms (Arecaceae), woody ornamentals, groundcovers, and bedding plants who are only selling locally have been hard hit. Their containerized plants have become overgrown and cannot be sold even at “fire sale” prices. Some failing nurseries

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Palms are flowering plants belonging to the family Arecaceae within the class of monocots. They are classified into 181 genera and roughly 2600 currently known species of ornamental palms ( Christenhusz and Byng, 2016 ), most of which are restricted

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.K. Al-Azwani, E.K. Malek, J.A. 2012 DNA-based assays to distinguish date palm (Arecaceae) gender Amer. J. Bot. 99 7 10 Aslan, S. Neja, R. Estrada, D. Dignon, W. Mitchell, S. 1991 Soil, water and climactic considerations in selecting date palm planting

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Tissue responses and solution movement after stem wounding in six Cycas species HortScience 44 848 851 Griffith, M.P. Noblick, L.R. Dowe, J.L. Husby, C.E. Calonje, M. 2008 Cyclone tolerance in New World Arecaceae: Biogeographic variation and abiotic

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(Areca: Arecaceae) of East Malesia Bot J Linn Soc . 168 2 147 173 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01199.x Huang Q Liu K-K Chen K. 2021 Effect of processing technology on the content of arecoline in areca product Food Ind . 42 9 57 60

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marker systems such as RAPD [25% in walnut ( Nicese et al., 1998 )], ISSR [51.52% in Arecaceae ( Roncal et al., 2007 )], SSR [83.33% in Psathyrostachys huashanica ( Wang et al., 2006a )]. It was comparable to those in Boesenbergia [98.7% to 100

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