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During the winter of 1991-92. four cultivars of Alstroemeria: `F-180'. `l-5'. `Parigo Pink' and `Parigo Red' were treated with eight different overwintering covers: straw, straw with plastic covering, sawdust, sawdust with plastic covering, hoops with plastic covering, hoops with microfoam covering, microfoam and a control with no cover. All covers had significant effects on the survival of `Parigo Pink' and `Parigo Red'; mulching with straw only gave the best winter protection. There were also significant genotypic differences among the four cultivars: 73% of `Parigo Pink' and `Parigo Red' plants survived after winter, but none of `F-180' or `l-5' survived. In addition, pre-winter evaluation indicated that there were significant genotypic differences among the four cultivars with cold resistance. The cold resistance was highly correlated with winter hardiness. It was concluded that: (1) pre-winter evaluation could be an efficient indicator for winter hardiness selection on Alstroemeria and (2) application of straw provided sufficient winter protection for zone 6 Alstroemeria. Other approaches of mulching need to be further identified in order to protect all Alstroemeria for overwintering in the northeastern United States.

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Cranberry production involves the use of flooding for several purposes during the growing season, including pest control, winter protection, and harvest. The effect of the dissolved oxygen concentration in floodwater on carbohydrate concentration of uprights and roots during flooding was investigated using potted `Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) vines. Pots were placed in large bins filled with water to simulate a spring pest control flood (called late water) over a 21-day period. Two treatments were applied: oxygenated and nonoxygenated (control). Uprights and roots were collected every 3 days and prepared for HPLC analysis to quantify nonstructural carbohydrate concentration. Soluble sugar (sucrose, glucose, and fructose) and starch concentration, as well as total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNSC) concentration, decreased over the 3-week period in uprights but not roots regardless of treatment. Interestingly, the sucrose, glucose, fructose, and starch concentrations of uprights in the oxygenated treatment were lower than those of uprights in the control treatment throughout the experiment. This research indicates that vines in flooded bogs demonstrate a net carbon loss, resulting in reduced carbohydrate concentration available for growth and fruit production.

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A hardy shrub rose evaluation trial was planted at three locations in Wisconsin representing U.S.D.A. cold hardiness zones 3, 4, and 5. There were nine replications of each of the 20 different, new or underused rose cultivars located at each location. The roses were then evaluated monthly (May-Nov.) for three years. Monthly data were taken and parameters included: plant height, width, flowers (color, size, amount, duration), insect injury, disease susceptibility, hips (production, size, and color in fall), and amount of winter dieback in spring. Pesticides and winter protection were not used in the trial to properly evaluate for pest resistance and cold hardiness. Pest resistance for roses varied among the cultivars. `Marie-Victorin' was the most severely infected rose by insects. Blackspot and anthracnose were severe (>60% of plant infected) on `Robusta', Red FairyTM, Kaleidoscope™, Cambridge™, and Madison™. Flower amount and continuous bloom occurred on Carefree Delight™, Cambridge™, Madison™, Knockout™, Fire Meidiland™, Mystic Meidiland™, and Red Fairy™. Hip production occurred on many of the cultivars, however, only Carefree Beauty™, `Marie-Victorin', and Mystic Meidiland™ produced colorful orange-red hips. Winter hardiness also varied between the cultivars.

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A survey was conducted to identify and characterize the effectiveness of overwintering methods used to protect container-grown herbaceous perennials in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 8. Survey questionnaires were sent by first-class mail on 20 Aug. 1996 to 634 firms involved in growing and/or selling container-grown herbaceous perennials identified from the Perennial Plant Association Membership Directory. Completed questionnaires were received from 293 individuals (46.2% response rate) in 38 states, the District of Columbia, and six Canadian provinces. Survey participants reported using several overwintering methods: structureless systems (71.0%), polyhouses (52.9%), polyhouses with inflated double polyethylene covers (30.7%), and low-profile polyhuts (12.3%). Over three-fourths of the respondents (78.8%) said their winter protection methods resulted in minimal to no plant loss (0-10%). Only 53 respondents (18.1%) reported losses >10%. The most frequently cited reason for plant loss across all hardiness zones was excessive moisture inside the overwintering environment (50.2%). Equal percentages (33.4%) indicated low temperatures and damage from animals as the next most likely factors responsible for plant loss. Respondents identified, in descending order, Iris, Delphinium, Lavandula, Papaver, and Lupinus as the five genera most difficult to overwinter.

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Research was conducted in New Hampshire during Fall 1995 and Spring 1996 to determine a planting schedule, rowcover type, application time, and plastic mulch type to be used in adapting the annual hill strawberry production system to New England. Treatments in Fall 1995 included two planting dates, three mulch types, and four rowcover modifications. Yields did not differ statistically between a 18 Aug. and 1 Sept. planting date or among plastic mulches. Typar 518 floating rowcovers significantly increased branch crowns, and early and total fruit yield compared to hay mulch applied for winter protection. Research was initiated in Fall 1996 to determine the effect of runner production on yield. Plug plants (50 vs. 24 tray) were treated with different day lengths and temperatures and planted in the field on 26 Aug. or 9 Sept. All plants were covered with Typar 518 on 4 Oct. 1996. Larger, late-planted plugs treated with cool, short days produced no runners in Fall 1996 and increased branch crowns and total yield in Spring 1997. Plants set out in Fall 1995 were evaluated for 2nd year production with or without runner pruning and four rowcover treatments in Fall 1996. Runner pruning did not significantly increase total yields, but resulted in earlier fruit harvesting in Spring 1997. Typar 518 applied 4 Oct. resulted in the greatest yield of any rowcover treatment.

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Research was conducted in New Hampshire during Fall 1995 and Spring 1996 to determine a planting schedule, rowcover type, application time, and plastic mulch type to be used in adapting the annual hill strawberry production system to New England. Treatments in Fall 1995 included two planting dates, three mulch types, and four rowcover modifications. Yields did not differ statistically between a 18 Aug. and 1 Sept. planting date or among plastic mulches. Typar 518 floating rowcovers significantly increased branch crowns, and early and total fruit yield compared to hay mulch applied for winter protection. Research was initiated in Fall 1996 to determine the effect of runner production on yield. Plug plants (50 vs. 24 tray) were treated with different day lengths and temperatures and planted in the field on 26 Aug. or 9 Sept. All plants were covered with Typar 518 on 4 Oct. 1996. Larger, late-planted plugs treated with cool, short days produced no runners in Fall 1996 and increased branch crowns and total yield in Spring 1997. Plants set out in Fall 1995 were evaluated for 2nd year production with or without runner pruning and four rowcover treatments in Fall 1996. Runner pruning did not significantly increase total yields, but resulted in earlier fruit harvesting in Spring 1997. Typar 518 applied 4 Oct. resulted in the greatest yield of any rowcover treatment.

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A field study was conducted at Tennessee State University's research station to evaluate the effect of hardwood bark mulch on the winter survival of garden mums. A randomized complete block design was used. Cultivars used were adorn, encore, grandchild, jackpot, legend, minnautumn, minnwhite and triump. At the end of the flowering season the tops were removed leaving a four inch stubble in the mulch. The number of mum plants that resumed growth the following spring were counted for each cultivar. There was a difference in the winter survival of the different cultivars as well as a significant difference in the mulch treated and the control. Grandchild and jackpot were most cold hardy followed by encore, minnwhite, minnautumn, triump, legend, and adorn. Grandchild and jackpot with four inches of hardwood bark mulch had an 88 percent survival while the control had a 44 percent survival. Adorn. had a 51 percent survival with four inches of mulch and a 20 percent survival in the control. This data shows that hardwood bark mulch holds a great potential for providing excellent winter protection for garden mums.

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In commercial cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) production, flooding is used as a cultural practice for harvest and for winter protection. In addition, after the withdrawal of the winter flood, cranberry bogs may be reflooded in the spring, a practice known as holding “late water” (LW). This practice was used by early cranberry growers in Massachusetts to avoid spring frost and to promote keeping quality in the harvested fruit. Recently, LW has been “rediscovered” as a cultural tool with the potential for reducing inputs of chemical pesticides and fertilizers. We have begun to document the effects of LW on pest populations and on cranberry plants to provide growers with a solid basis for deciding whether to use this cultural practice. In 1993, 11 LW bogs were studied and compared to control bogs. All of the bogs showed acceptable levels of insect and disease damage on the fruit at harvest. The average number of pesticide applications for the LW bogs vs. controls was 0.9 vs. 2.6 for insecticides and 1.3 vs. 2.8 for fungicides.

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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been cultivated in much of the world for millennia. Little scientific research, however, has focused on improving cultural conditions for production in the temperate regions of the northeastern United States, where garlic is gaining importance as a horticultural crop. To study the effectiveness of wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) mulch on garlic, experiments were conducted at the Cornell Univ. research facilities in East Ithaca, N.Y., during the 1993–94 (year 1) and 1994–95 (year 2) growing seasons and at the Homer C. Thompson Vegetable Research Farm, Freeville, N.Y., during the 1994–95 growing season. Two clones, one bolting and one nonbolting, were studied in year 1, and four varieties, three bolting and one non bolting, in year 2. All were fall-planted (mid-October), and mulch treatments were covered with wheat straw early in the following December. Control plots were not covered. The mulch either remained on the crop throughout the growing season or was removed early in the spring to expedite soil warming. This is the common practice among growers who use mulch only for winter protection. The presence of mulch during the winter increased the survival rate. Soil temperatures under the wheat straw were significantly lower during the summer than soil temperatures in unmulched plots, which could have contributed to the increase found in the yield and average bulb size of several of the cultivars. Maintaining the mulch through the entire growing season reduced weed pressure >30%. We found no significant increase in the amount of basal fungal infection. The results indicate that using straw mulch can improve garlic produced in the northeastern United States.

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or aquatic habitats. The symbols also indicate whether plants require winter protection, are used in window boxes, are medicinal or toxic, are used as cut flowers or fruit decoration, or are otherwise useful. There is even a symbol for fragrance. Even

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