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Although the inland Pacific Northwest has a warm climate during the growing season, grapes grown in this region may be exposed to colder than optimal temperatures at several times during the year. In addition to damage from spring and fall frosts, intermittent winters with little to no snow cover and subzero temperatures can cause vine dieback and death. Temperature patterns in the recent past indicate that both fall and midwinter are times when risk of bud damage from cold events is probable, making proper site selection and cultivar choice critical. Water is not used for frost protection in this climate, but wind machines have proven to be useful. In frost-prone sites, annual sucker growth with cane burying is practiced as an insurance strategy. Modifying pruning strategies has not been shown to be advantageous after fall cold events. If rootstocks are used, research has shown greater scion survival with higher graft positions.

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Rosa hybrida L. ‘Peace’ and ‘Garden Party’ plants covered with mulch in October and November for 2 weeks were less cold-hardy, based on laboratory freezing studies, than unmulched plants. Subsequently, field injury of mulched stems was observed in December and January. Plants covered in mid-December were less cold-hardy than unprotected plants but exhibited less field injury in January than October- and November-mulched plants. Plants covered with Styrofoam cones were not injured as early as perlite-covered plants. There was no significant difference in winter injury when stems were covered with perlite, soil, or leaves. Unprotected plants had less winter stem injury than covered plants during the winter of 1978–79, when the plants were covered with snow. The following winter there was little snow cover, and November- and December-covered plants had significantly less winter stem injury in January than plants with no cover.

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The benefit of applying an antitranspirant for protection of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) vines exposed to desiccating conditions was evaluated at four different sites, two sites per year, for a period of 1 year each. Overall, plots receiving one fall application of an antitranspirant produced more berries and greater total fruit mass the following year than did nontreated plots. Overall dry leaf mass was not significantly affected. At one site, treated plots had more flowering uprights and more flowers per upright per unit of ground area than the nontreated plots. For cranberry growers who cannot maintain a winter flood, one fall application of pinolene (Vapor Gard) may offer some protection against winter injury. Further research is needed to document long-term yield effects as well as to clarify the role of the antitranspirant in protecting exposed vines and floral buds against adverse winter conditions. Chemical name used: di-1-p-menthene (pinolene).

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and northeastern United States, cultivars with increased winterhardiness or systems to protect blackberry plants from winter injury are needed. Improved trellis design and cane-training techniques that improve winter-protection strategies, but also

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://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/PDF/garlic.pdf >. Bratsch, T. Morse, R. Shen, Z.X. Benson, B. 2005 No-till organic culture of garlic utilizing different cover crop residues and straw mulch for over-wintering protection, under two seasonal levels of organic nitrogen Virginia Veg. Small Fruit Specialty Crop

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likely to survive in that designated zone, but may require additional insulation (winter protection) to prevent extensive cane dieback or death. The necessity to provide winter protection conflicts with consumer demands for low maintenance landscapes

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that, with the help of rowcovers, strawberry could be successfully produced through winter, although unpredictable low temperatures in winter could cause chilling damage to fruit ( Gu et al., 2017b ). Additional winter protections such as adding low

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During the winter of 1991-92. four cultivars of Alstroemeria: `F-180'. `l-5'. `Parigo Pink' and `Parigo Red' were treated with eight different overwintering covers: straw, straw with plastic covering, sawdust, sawdust with plastic covering, hoops with plastic covering, hoops with microfoam covering, microfoam and a control with no cover. All covers had significant effects on the survival of `Parigo Pink' and `Parigo Red'; mulching with straw only gave the best winter protection. There were also significant genotypic differences among the four cultivars: 73% of `Parigo Pink' and `Parigo Red' plants survived after winter, but none of `F-180' or `l-5' survived. In addition, pre-winter evaluation indicated that there were significant genotypic differences among the four cultivars with cold resistance. The cold resistance was highly correlated with winter hardiness. It was concluded that: (1) pre-winter evaluation could be an efficient indicator for winter hardiness selection on Alstroemeria and (2) application of straw provided sufficient winter protection for zone 6 Alstroemeria. Other approaches of mulching need to be further identified in order to protect all Alstroemeria for overwintering in the northeastern United States.

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Growers in Northern New Jersey are slowly adopting strawberry plasticulture as an improved production system. One advantage of the system is early fruit production. Early fruit usually brings high prices in the marketplace. With early production, however, there is an increased risk of a late frost damaging flowers and fruit. Removing floating rowcover winter protection earlier than flowering may cause strawberries to bloom later, reducing the risk of frost damage. Supporting the rowcovers above the crop with wire hoops may also provide better winter protection and improve fruit production. In 2 years of field trials, removing floating rowcovers 2 weeks before anticipated bloom reduced early yield and delayed the first harvest by 2 to 3 days. Total marketable yield and average fruit weight were not significantly influenced by early removal. Plants with rowcovers supported with wire hoops did not produce significantly greater total yields or average fruit weights than plants protected by unsupported rowcovers. The wire hoops caused damage to the rowcovers, which may make their use in commercial production impractical.

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The capacity of plant materials to resume normal growth after exposure to low temperature is the ultimate criterion of cold hardiness. We therefore determined the low-temperature tolerance of five commercially important herbaceous perennial species. Container-grown blanket flower (Gaillardia ×grandiflora Van Houtte. `Goblin'), false dragonhead [Physoste- gia virginiana (L.) Benth. `Summer Snow'], perennial salvia (Salvia ×superba Stapf. `Stratford Blue'), painted daisy (Tanacetum coccineum Willd. `Robinson's Mix'), and creeping veronica (Veronica repens Loisel.) were subjected to 0, -2, 4, -6, -8, -10, -12, -14, -16, and -18C in a programmable freezer. The percentage of survival of most species was adequate when exposed to -10C. Producers of container-grown perennials are advised to provide winter protection measures that prohibit root medium temperatures from falling below -10C.

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