Asparagus is considered a relatively drought tolerant plant, but few studies are available on the gas exchange response to soil moisture stress. Seedlings were grown in the greenhouse for six months before initiation of the water stress treatments. Soils were allowed to dry to matric potentials of -0.05, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa before rewatering to pot capacity. Gas exchange and fern water potentials were measured diurnally on asparagus plants when soil matric potentials reached their minima. Decreasing soil matric potentials decreased net carbon dioxide assimilation, stomatal conductance and fern water potential. Assimilation rates (6 am) were between 3 and 5 umols m-2 s-1 for all soil moisture treatments. Carbon assimilation rates of 10, 8, and 7 umols m-2 s-1 were recorded at 10 am for the -0.05, -0.3 and -0.5 MPa soil matric potentials, respectively. Assimilation rates decreased sharply over the remainder of the day. The diurnal pattern for conductance were similar to the assimilation rates. Fern water potentials were greater in the -0.05 MPa than in the -0.5 MPa treatment for all measurement periods with an intermediate response for soil matric potentials of -0.3 MPa. Fern water potentials were highest at 6 am (-0.2 to -0.6 MPa) before declining to their minima (-1.5 to -1.8 MPa) at 10 am. Water potentials remained at these low levels throughout the day before recovering slightly at 6 pm.
Daniel Drost and Darlene Wilcox-Lee
Jeb S. Fields, James S. Owen Jr., James E. Altland, Marc W. van Iersel and Brian E. Jackson
), dynamic hydraulic properties, including the inherent relationship between volumetric water content (ϴ), water potential (Ψ), and K , can provide greater insight in determining suitability of soilless substrates ( Caron et al., 2014 ). Moisture
Phil S. Allen, Donald B. White, Karl Russer and Dave Olson
An inexpensive system for maintaining desired water potentials throughout seed germination was developed. During hydration, a water reservoir at the base of inclined petri dishes allowed continual saturation of filter paper on which seeds were placed. During dehydration, seeds were exposed to equilibrium vapor pressures above saturated salt solutions. Constant temperature, necessary to prevent condensation of water vapor, was achieved via a small (0.2 A) fan that furnished and circulated heat throughout an insulated chamber in which salt solutions were placed. By operating the chamber above ambient laboratory temperature, interior cooling was not required. The system allowed manipulation of the rate, degree, and frequency of dehydration episodes to which germinating seeds were exposed.
Jeb S. Fields, James S. Owen Jr. and Holly L. Scoggins
research infers that the degree of water availability has strict cutoffs of easily available water [between −10 and −50 hPa substrate water potential (Ψ)] and water buffering capacity (Ψ between −50 and −100 hPa), with all water held at Ψ < −100 hPa not
Erik B. G. Feibert, Clint C. Shock and Monty Saunders
Onions were grown with different soil water potentials as irrigation criteria to determine the soil water potential at which optimum onion yield and quality occurs. Furrow irrigation treatments in 1992 and 1993 consisted of six soil water potential thresholds (-12.5 to -100 kPa). Soil water potential in the first foot of soil was measured by granular matrix sensors (Watermark Model 200SS, Irrometer Co., Riverside, CA) that had been previously calibrated to tensiometers on the same silt loam series. Both years, yield and market grade based on bulb size (more jumbo and colossal onions) increased with wetter treatments. In 1993, a relatively cool year, onion grade peaked at -37.5 kPa due to a significant increase in rot during storage following the wetter treatments. These results suggest the importance of using moisture criteria to schedule irrigations for onions.
Steve C. Yuza, Art L. Youngman and John C. Pair
This study examined physical factors and physiological responses of five different ecotypes and cultivars of Acer saccharum and A. nigrum. The objective was to determine variations in leaf conductance and xylem water potential and correlations associated with their natural geographic distribution. Compared were two ecotypes of sugar maple, Caddo and Wichita Mountains, native to Oklahoma with cultivars Green Mountain and Legacy, plus black maple seedlings from Iowa. Measurements taken included leaf conductance, xylem water potential and soil water potential in a replicated block of 15-year-old trees. The two ecotypes had consistently higher photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and transpiration rates than other selections. Xylem water potentials were significantly higher for Caddo maples than Green Mountain, Legacy and Acer nigrum in both predawn and midday samples. This difference in water availability can be associated with a tendency for Caddo to vary its stomatal conductance. The other tree types maintained stable stomatal conductances.
C.A. Mach, J.W. Buxton and R.S. Gates
The CWT irrigation system consists of a capillary mat placed on a level bench so one side extends over the edge of the bench into a trough containing a nutrient solution maintained at a controlled distance below the bench. The nutrient solution is drawn by capillarity up to and over the bench surface. As plants use the nutrient solution or as water evaporates from the media, it is replaced from the trough. The automatic system maintains a constant air/water ratio in the growing media. Geraniums were grown in a peat based media in 15-cm pots at 0, 2, and 4 cm CWT. In a separate study, the water potential was determined in two media. Water potential was determined at the bottom, middle, and top of the container at 0, 2 and 4 cm CWT every 2.5 hrs during the light period. Geraniums at 0 and 2 cm had the greatest leaf area and dry weight. The 0- and 2-cm treatments were >25% greater than plants at 4 cm CWT. The roots of plants at 0 cm CWT were concentrated at 2–4 cm above the bottom of the container, whereas roots at 2 cm CWT uniformily extended from the center to the bottom. Water potential was about the same in each media within each CWT treatment. The water potential from top to bottom decreased slightly about midafternoon on a sunny day when water demand was the greatest. Media at 0 CWT at the container bottom had 0 water potential; whereas the water potential at 2 and 4 CWT had a lower water potential.
Dana L. Baumann, Beth Ann Workmaster and Kevin R. Kosola
Wisconsin cranberry growers report that fruit production by the cranberry cultivar `Ben Lear' (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is low in beds with poor drainage, while the cultivar `Stevens' is less sensitive to these conditions. We hypothesized that `Ben Lear' and `Stevens' would differ in their root growth and mortality response to variation in soil water potential. Rooted cuttings of each cultivar were grown in a green-house in sand-filled pots with three different soil water potentials which were regulated by a hanging water column below a fritted ceramic plate. A minirhizotron camera was used to record root growth and mortality weekly for five weeks. Root mortality was negligible (2% to 6%). Whole plant relative growth rates were greatest for both cultivars under the wettest conditions. Rooting depth was shallowest under the wettest conditions. Whole-plant relative growth rates of `Ben Lear' were higher than `Stevens' at all soil water potentials. `Stevens' plants had significantly higher root to shoot ratios and lower leaf area ratios than `Ben Lear' plants, and produced more total root length than `Ben Lear' at all soil water potentials. Shallow rooting, high leaf area ratio, and low allocation to root production by `Ben Lear' plants may lead to greater susceptibility to drought stress than `Stevens' plants in poorly drained cranberry beds.
Anthony V. LeBude*, Barry Goldfarb and Frank A. Blazich
Producing high quality rooted stem cuttings on a large scale requires precise management of the rooting environment. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the rooting environment on adventitious root formation of stem cuttings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Hardwood stem cuttings of loblolly pine were collected in Feb. 2002 from hedged stock plants and stored at 4 °C until setting in Apr. 2002. One hundred stem cuttings per plot in each of two replications received 45, 61, 73, 102, 147, or 310 mL·m-2 of mist delivered intermittently by a traveling gantry (boom) system. Mist frequency was similar for all treatments and was related inversely to relative humidity (RH) within the polyethylene covered greenhouse. Rooting tubs in each plot were filled with a substrate of fine silica sand, and substrate water potential was held constant using soil tensiometers that activated a subirrigation system. Cutting water potential was measured destructively on two cuttings per plot beginning at 0500 hr every 3 hh until 2300 hr (seven measurements) 7, 14, 21, or 28 days after setting. During rooting, leaf temperature and RH were recorded in each plot to calculate vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Cutting water potential and VPD were strongly related to mist application. Cutting water potential was also related to VPD. Rooting percentage had a linear and quadratic relationship with mean cutting water potential and VPD averaged between 1000 and 1800 HR. Eighty percent rooting occurred within a range of values for VPD. Data suggest that VPD can be used to manage the water deficit of stem cuttings of loblolly pine to increase rooting percentage. These results may be applicable to other species and to other rooting environments.
Robert E. Shar
Plant water deficits usually result in severe inhibition of shoot growth, while root growth is less inhibited or even promoted. Recent advances in understanding the physiology of the differential responses of root and shoot growth to low water potentials will be reviewed.
While it might be readily accepted that hormones arc important in transducing environmental conditions into growth responses, there is surprisingly little definitive evidence for the role of any hormone in regulating plant growth in soils of low water potential. Using maize seedlings as a model system, the increase in ABA that accompanies plant water deficits has been shown to be required for root growth maintenance, and also to play a role in shoot growth inhibition. The action of ABA in root growth maintenance appears to involve regulation of ethylene synthesis and/or sensitivity, while the mechanism of shoot growth inhibition is not known. Evidence that ABA acts as a root `signal controlling shoot growth in drying soil will also be considered.
The importance of osmotic adjustment as a mechanism of growth maintenance at low water potentials has been questioned by suggestions that solute accumulation may be merely a consequence of stress-induced growth inhibition. Recent studies will be discussed which do not support this idea, and suggest that the response may be useful for crop improvement.