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  • Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science x
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Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck) and cauliflower (B. oleracea var. botrytis DC) are closely related botanical varieties. The underlying genetic bases of their phenotypic differences from each other are not well understood. A molecular genetic marker enabling B. oleracea germplasm curators and breeders to predict phenotype from seeds or seedlings would be a valuable tool. Mutant alleles at flower developmental pathway loci BoAP1-a, Bo-CAL-a, and glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway locus BoGSL-ELONG have been reported to be associated with a cauliflower phenotype. We surveyed mutant alleles at these three loci in a genetically diverse sample of broccoli and cauliflower accessions from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) and the University of Warwick, Genetic Resources Unit of Warwick HRI (HRI). Phenotypic and genotypic data were collected for multiple plants per accession during two field seasons. Simple genetic models assuming dominance or codominance of alleles were analyzed. Goodness-of-fit tests rejected the null model that the mutant genotype was associated with a cauliflower phenotype. A correlation analysis showed that BoAP1-a and BoCAL-a alleles or loci were significantly correlated with phenotype but the fraction of variation explained was low, 4.4% to 6.3%. Adding BoGSL-ELONG to the analysis improved predictive power using the linear regression procedure, Maximum R-square Improvement (max R 2). In the best three-variable model, only 24.8% of observed phenotypic variation was explained. Because tested genetic models did not hold robustly for the surveyed accessions, it is likely that there are multiple genetic mechanisms that influence whether the phenotype is broccoli or cauliflower. Our results in commercial cultivars indicate that other genetic mechanisms are more important in determining the horticultural type than are BoAP1-a and BoCAL-a.

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constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the Illinois Natural History Survey, the Univ. of Illinois, or the USDA and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable. The cost of publishing this paper was

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Sweetness, which is known to vary significantly among clones, is the dominant sensory attribute characterizing the flavor of sweetpotatoes [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.]. The relative sweetness of baked roots, expressed as sucrose equivalents, was determined for 272 clones from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Plant Germplasm System collection. The clones were from 34 countries that collectively produced 93% of the world's sweetpotato production in 2002. Individual clones were separated into five categories based upon the concentration and relative sweetness of individual sugars, expressed numerically as sucrose equivalents per 100 g dry mass: very high ≥38; high 29-37; moderate 21-28; low 12-20; and nonsweet ≤12. Based upon the mean sucrose equivalents of the clones for each country, only 9% of the countries, which accounted for only 2.1% of the total annual production of the countries surveyed, had sweetpotatoes that were classified as very high. While the majority (62%) of the countries surveyed had clones that were categorized as high, they represented only 4.4% of the total production of sweetpotatoes. None of the countries had mean sucrose equivalent values that were categorized as low or nonsweet, although a few individual clones were ranked as low and one as nonsweet. Countries that account for the majority (87%) of the sweetpotatoes grown worldwide had a mean sucrose equivalent ranking of moderate. Sweetness is derived from the composite of endogenous sugars (sucrose, glucose, fructose) and maltose formed via starch hydrolysis during baking. Maltose accounted for only 42% of the average contribution to the total sucrose equivalents. The range in the concentration of individual sugars among clones was substantial as was their contribution to sucrose equivalents. Sucrose equivalents due to maltose in individual clones ranged from 0.6 to 21.9 while endogenous sugars ranged from 6.4 to 46.9. The results indicate that essentially all of the sweetpotato clones tested from around the world were classified as equal to or greater than moderate in sucrose equivalents, and that there is substantial genetic diversity within the genepool such that the potential exists for tailoring the flavor of new cultivars, via significantly increasing or decreasing sugar content, to meet specific consumer preferences and/or product uses.

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Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been clonally propagated for thousands of years because it does not produce seed under standard cultivation conditions. A single garlic accession frequently displays a high degree of phenotypic plasticity that is likely to be dependent upon soil type, moisture, latitude, altitude, and cultural practices. The diversity observed by collectors has occasionally led to the renaming of varieties as they are exchanged among growers and gardeners. As a result, there are numerous garlic varieties available both commercially and within the USDA National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) that may be identical genotypically, yet have unique cultivar names. To address this possibility, we performed amplified fragment-length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis on a comprehensive selection of 211 Allium sativum and Allium longicuspis accessions from NPGS and commercial sources. We used several statistical approaches to evaluate how these clonal lineages are genetically differentiated and how these patterns of differentiation correspond to recognized phenotypic classifications. These data suggest that while there are extensive duplications within the surveyed accessions, parsimony and distance based analyses reveal substantial diversity that is largely consistent with major phenotypic classes.

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A survey of 140 processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fields in central California was conducted in 1996-97 to examine the relationship between K nutrition and fruit quality for processing. Quality parameters evaluated were soluble solids (SS), pH, color of a blended juice sample, and the percent of fruit affected by the color disorders yellow shoulder (YS) or internal white tissue (IWT). Juice color and pH were not correlated with soil K availability or plant K status. SS was correlated with both soil exchangeable K and midseason leaf K concentration (r = 0.25 and 0.28, p < 0.01) but the regression relationships suggested that the impact of soil or plant K status on fruit SS was minor. YS and IWT incidence, which varied among fields from 0% to 68% of fruit affected, was negatively correlated with K status of both soil and plant. Soil exchangeable K/√Mg ratio was the measure of soil K availability most closely correlated with percent total color disorders (YS + IWT, r = -0.45, p < 0.01). In field trials conducted to document the relationship between soil K availability and the fruit color disorders, soil application of either K or gypsum (CaSO4, to increase K/√Mg ratio) reduced YS and total color disorders. Multiple foliar K applications were effective in reducing fruit color disorders at only one of two sites. In no field trial did K application improve yield, SS, or juice color.

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This report identifies S-RNases of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and presents information about cDNA sequences encoding the S-RNases, which leads to the development of a molecular typing system for S-alleles in this fruit tree species. Stylar proteins of sweet cherry were surveyed by two dimensional polyaclylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) to identify S-proteins associated with gametophytic self-incompatibility. Glycoprotein spots linked to S-alleles were found in a group of proteins which had Mr and pI similar to those of other rosaceous S-RNases. These glycoproteins were present at highest concentration in the upper segment of the mature style and shared immunological characteristics and N-terminal sequences with those of S-RNases of other plant species. cDNAs encoding these glycoproteins were cloned based on the N-terminal sequences. Genomic DNA and RNA blot analyses and deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the cDNAs encode S-RNases; thus the S-proteins identified by 2D-PAGE are S-RNases. Although S1 to S6 -alleles of sweet cherry cultivars could be distinguished from each other with the genomic DNA blot analysis, a much simpler method of PCR-based typing system was developed for the six S-alleles based on the DNA sequence data obtained from the cDNAs encoding S-RNases.

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Proline and various betaines can function as osmoprotectants and cryoprotectants when accumulated in the cytoplasm of cells. Genetic engineering can raise levels of these compounds and thereby improve stress resistance; Citrus species are potential candidates for this. Before attempting such engineering, it is necessary to characterize the natural osmoprotectants of Citrus and related genera. We therefore surveyed 55 cultivated and wild species of the Aurantioideae, analyzing proline and betaines in leaves of mature trees. Some citrus relatives accumulated proline alone; others accumulated proline and proline betaine, as did all Citrus species studied. The levels of these two compounds ranged from about 20 to 100 μmol·g-1 dry mass, and were significantly inversely correlated. Proline betaine is known to be synthesized from proline and to be a better osmoprotectant. Because Citrus species all have more proline than proline betaine, there is scope for engineering more of the latter. Many species had small amounts of hydroxyproline betaine; other betaines were essentially absent. The lack of other betaines means that it would also be rational to engineer the accumulation of glycine betaine or similar compounds.

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Postzygotic self-incompatibility has been reported in several Indian mango (Mangifera indica L.) commercial cultivars. Floridian cultivars, on the other hand, have been planted in solid blocks and seem to be self-fertile. Isozyme analysis enabled us to determine outcrossings rates at the fruitlet and fruit stages in the Floridian `Tommy Atkins' (`Tommy'). Two commercial mango orchards consisting of adjacent solid blocks of `Maya' and `Tommy' were studied. This combination offered a unique opportunity to identify each individual fruitlet or fruit as selfed or outcrossed by TPI isozyme analysis. A consistent and significant increase in outcrossing rate during fruit development was found: the average outcrossing rate increased from 10% and 13% in fruitlets to 66% and 73% in mature fruit in the two `Tommy' blocks surveyed. This 6-fold increase is the result of selective abscission of selfed progeny. A significant inverse correlation was found between the distance of `Tommy' trees from the `Maya' block and the outcrossing rate in mature fruit. No significant correlation between distance from `Maya', or outcrossing rate, and yield was observed, suggesting that the practice of planting `Tommy' in solid blocks is sound.

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The most obvious effects of a low leaf:fruit (LF) ratio [two leaves for one cluster per shoot (LF2)] on grape (Vitis vinifera) berries are suppressed anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin, decreased berry weight and soluble solids concentration, and increased titratable acidity. In this study, proteins isolated from berry skins grown under low and high LF ratio conditions, LF2 and LF12, respectively, were characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. A survey of ≈600 to 700 spots from berry skin yielded 77 proteins with differential expression between LF12 and LF2 treatments. Of these, the 59 proteins that were identified consisted of 47 proteins that were down-regulated and 12 that were up-regulated under LF2 conditions compared with LF12 conditions. Most proteins involved in metabolism, energy, transcription, protein synthesis, binding function, signal transduction, and cell defense were down-regulated in LF2 berries, whereas two important enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis, chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol reductase, were not detected. Only a few proteins (e.g., two heat shock proteins related to protein fate and nutrient reservoir storage protein) were found to be up-regulated in LF2 berries. This suggested that, with the exception of secondary metabolism, many proteomic events may have an effect on anthocyanin synthesis in the skins responding to LF.

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Mechanization of farm work is increasingly demanded for the current system of fresh-market tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) production. One essential element for the adoption of mechanical harvest of fresh-market tomatoes is modification of plant architecture so that the crop can be grown without staking. To address this in the current production system, the stem length should be reduced. The tomato brachytic (br) locus has been shown to be a primary source of reducing stem length. To improve the effectiveness of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for the br-mediated trait and to provide resources for cloning this gene, we fine-mapped br to the tomato genome. Fine mapping of br to chromosome 1 was initiated by a survey of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown to be polymorphic between the br phenotype and normal using the tomato array, identifying the interval that harbors br. Genetic markers that flank the locus further permitted saturation of the interval. Twenty-six fixed homozygous recombinant lines were identified together in two different populations and tested with those markers. These efforts resulted in the first report that the br is fine-mapped to a 763-kb physical interval of tomato reference genome. The identified markers close to the br in the present study will be significant resources for MAS and gene cloning research.

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