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C.E. Greer, R.E. Schutzki, A. Fernandez and J.F. Hancock

Starch gel electrophoresis was used to fingerprint 55 Taxus plants, listed as 21 species and/or cultivars. Plants were analyzed for six enzymes, representing eight putative loci. Within many of the cultivars, different fingerprints were observed, indicating nomenclatural errors in Taxus.

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J.A. Beaver and A.F. Iezzoni

We acknowledge the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station's support of this research. We also thank Dr. Steve Krebs for his instruction on starch gel electrophoresis and inheritance mode theory. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in

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Johanne C. Cousineau and Danielle J. Donnelly

Isoenzyme staining was used to characterize 55 of 78 raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus L., R. × neglectus Peck, and R. occidentalis L.). Six enzymes were needed to achieve this characterization: isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucoisomerase, phosphoglucomutase, shikimic acid dehydrogenase, arid triose phosphate isomerase. The 23 cultivars that were not uniquely characterized were grouped into eight groups of two and two groups of three and four. Two of these groups comprised black raspberry cultivars, all of which were similar isozymically. Isoenzymes could not distinguish between the cultivar Willamette and a spine-free mutant of the cultivar. Analysis of cultivars obtained from several sources revealed that raspberry cultivar mislabeling exists but is not very prevalent. Regular isoenzyme analysis of raspberry cultivars held by germplasm repositories, certified and other propagators, and breeders is both feasible and advisable for early detection of cultivar mislabeling.

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Roger G. Fuentes-Granados and Mark P. Widrlechner

This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of anthocyanin production and of malate dehydrogenase banding patterns in Agastache rugosa. Results of the study support the hypothesis that anthocyanin production is controlled by a single dominant gene, designated as A, for anthocyanin production. The Mdh-3 banding patterns are controlled by two alleles, each of which associated with a two-banded phenotype. A monomeric quaternary structure of MDH, which is rather atypical among plant species, can be inferred from the results. No linkage was found between the loci governing anthocyanin production and Mdh-3 banding patterns. This is the first report of heritable variability in A. rugosa.

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Johanne C. Cousineau and Danielle J. Donnelly

The inheritance of five isoenzymes was studied in red and purple raspberry F1 progenies (Rubus idaeus L. and Rubus × neglectus Peck). Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH; EC 1.1.1.42) was a dimeric enzyme present in the cytosol and coded for by one locus (Idh-1). Three of the four crosses analyzed at this locus had deviations from expected ratios, possibly caused by its linkage to a recessive lethal gene. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH; EC 1.1.1.37), phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI; EC 5.3.1.9), and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI; EC 5.3.1.1) were dimeric enzymes with two loci. Each of these three enzymes was present in an organelle and in the cytosol for locus 1 and 2, respectively. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM; EC 2.7.5.1) was monomeric with two loci, Pgm-1 and Pgm-2, located in an organelle and the cytosol, respectively. Each allele at Pgm-1 resulted in the formation of two bands. Although most progenies analyzed supported Mendelian inheritance of polymorphic loci (except for Idh-1), there was a higher than expected number of aberrant segregation ratios observed (18.4%). Analysis of 85 pairs of jointly segregating loci revealed a possible linkage group consisting of Mdh-2, Tpi-2, and Pgm-1.

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Zhigiang Zhu and Paul G. Thompson

The polymorphisms of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) in sweetpotato and I. trifida were examined. Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to analyze leaf and pollen tissue of parents and progenies of 10 crosses. Analyses revealed that PGI was a dimeric enzyme system controlled by 5 loci. The segregation ratios did not suggest that PGI was a duplicate system and therefore did not indicate hexaploidy. Only 2 loci appeared to be present in I. trifida. No observed band was related to different ploidy levels in I. batatas and I. trifida. No linkage was identified among the loci.

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Paul D. Mangum and Ellen B. Peffley

Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to study the mode of inheritance of isozyme phenotypes of four enzyme systems (ADH, 6-PGDH, PGM, and SKDH) in Allium cepa L. and A. fistulosum L. by monitoring segregations in backcross and F2 progeny. Segregation for most of the polymorphisms fit the expected Mendelian ratios as tested by the chi-square statistic. Three new isozyme loci were defined for onion. 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase was dimeric in structure, with two alleles present at the first locus, while a second locus was monomorphic. Shikimate dehydrogenase was monomeric with two alleles.

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Chemda Degani, Menashe Cohen, Ruth El-Batsri and Shmuel Gazit

Leaf phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) isozymes from 139 cultivars and seedlings of mango (Mangifera indica L.) were analyzed by starch gel electrophoresis. Six distinct banding patterns of PGI-2 consisting of single- and triple-banded phenotypes were detected. The genetic control of PGI-2 isozymes were inferred from segregating progenies of self-pollinated parent cultivars having triple-banded phenotypes. Comparison of the banding patterns of PGI-2 isozymes extracted from the pollen and the leaf of the same heterozygous cultivar demonstrates the allelism of the Pgi-2 locus.

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Paul D. Mangum and Ellen B. Peffley

Horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was used to study the inheritance of isozyme phenotypes of four enzyme systems [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGDH), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), and shikimate dehydrogenase (SKDH)] in Allium fistulosum L. by monitoring segregations in backcross and F2 progeny. Segregation for most of the polymorphisms fit the expected Mendelian ratios as tested by the chi-square statistic. Three new isozyme loci were defined for onion. Two loci were found for 6-PGDH. Locus one was dimeric with two alleles, and locus two was monomorphic. SKDH was monomeric with two alleles.

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Isabel Trujillo, Luis Rallo and Pere Arús

Pollen samples of 155 olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from different origins were analyzed to study isoenzymatic variability in five enzyme systems: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), esterase (EST), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and malic enzyme (ME) using starch gel electrophoresis. Polymorphism was observed in all of the isozyme systems. ME, GPI, EST, and LAP were the most useful systems for identification of cultivars. Different combinations of banding patterns of these systems allowed us to identify 85% of the cultivars. The remainder were separated into groups of two or three cultivars that could be identified using morphological characteristics. No intracultivar polymorphisms were observed.