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George E. Boyhan

to confidently draw conclusions from a study. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the optimum plot size and number of replications necessary to detect differences in yield, fruit size, fruit firmness, and soluble solids. Materials

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T. Casey Garvey and John D. Hewitt

Abbreviations: SSC, soluble solids content; QTL, quantitative-trait loci. 1 Present address: Hunt Wesson, 1111 Coven Blvd., Davis, CA 95616. 2 Present address: Rogers NK Research, P.O. Box 1827, Gilroy, CA 95021-1827. We acknowledge the assistance

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Lucianne Braga Oliveira Vilarinho, Derly Jose Henriques da Silva, Ann Greene, Kara Denee Salazar, Cristiane Alves, Molly Eveleth, Ben Nichols, Sana Tehseen, Joseph Kalil Khoury Jr., Jodie V. Johnson, Steven A. Sargent and Bala Rathinasabapathi

, thickness, antioxidant potentials, and total soluble solids. Materials and Methods Plant material and cultivation conditions. Seeds of C. annuum cultivars Bulgarian carrot and Round of Hungary were purchased from Park Seed Co. (Greenwood, SC) and Johnny

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Steven J. MacKenzie, Craig K. Chandler, Tomas Hasing and Vance M. Whitaker

peak bloom. Soluble solids content is the collective concentration of sugars, acids, and other substances dissolved in the cell sap. In strawberry, sugars comprise 80% to 90% of the SSC ( Perkins-Veazie, 1995 ). Fruit SSC is usually satisfactory for

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Gerald G. Dull, Richard G. Leffler and Gerald S. Birth

An instrument based on near infrared (NIR) reflectance techniques is described which is capable of determining nondestructively the percent soluble solids in whole honeydew, cantaloupe and watermelon samples. It utilizes a tilting interference filter technology for wavelength scanning and a silicon detector/amplifier for the detection of radiation which has penetrated through inner melon flesh. The standard error of prediction is of the order of 1.2 percent soluble solids for honeydew melons when compared with a standard refractometer analysis.

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Gad G. Yousef, Shyh-Shyan Wang and John J. Juvik

A segment from chromosome 7 of the wild tomato species, Lycopersicon chmielewskii has been introgressed through backcrossing into the processing cultivar, VF145B-7879. This segment was previously shown to carry a gene or genes that increase the soluble solids content in ripe red tomato fruits. To study the allelic interaction of this gene(s) and ascertain its performance in different genetic backgrounds, this line, homozygous for the L. chmielewskii segment, was crossed to its isogenic parent (VF145B-7879) and three other commercial cultivars (UC204c, E6203, and ChicoIII). The recurrent parent VF145B-7879 was also crossed to the other cultivars to generate two sets of hybrids, one heterozygous for the L. chmielewskii segment and the other homozygous for the L. esculentum segment on chromosome 7. Results from two years of field study revealed that the L. chmielewskii fragment, when either homozygous or heterozygous in the VF145B-7879 background, comparably increased soluble solids concentration in red fruit, suggesting dominant allelic interaction. This increase ranged from 8%–10% higher soluble solids content in these lines compared to the levels found in the recurrent parent (VF145B-7879). The F1 hybrids containing one dosage of this gene(s) showed a significant increase in the soluble solids content compared to the commercial parents. However, due to F1 heterosis observed in all the hybrid combinations, soluble solids content in the hybrids with this gene were not significantly greater than that of the hybrids without this gene. This gene was found to exert no significant influence on fruit pH, weight, and yield.

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Tommy E. Thompson

Variability in soluble solids concentration (SSC, °Brix) in liquid endosperm (LE) among individual pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] fruits and among fruits from different trees and cultivars using a sugar refractometer was determined at College Station, Texas, in 1997. Repeatability of readings from LE from the same fruit was excellent. Fruits from the same tree did not vary for SSC, but significant differences among clones were common. Soluble solids concentration appears to decrease as the fruit matures. The SSC values for two full-sib clones (one susceptible to water split and one resistant to water split) were similar. This information discounts the possibility that high osmotic water potential gradients alone induce the water split phenomenon. A wide range of SSC percents was recorded. A low of 0.5% was recorded for LE from a `Houma' fruit, while 6.1% was recorded for LE from a fruit from a drought-stressed `Burkett' tree.

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Gerald G. Dull, Richard G. Leffler and Gerald S. Birth

A near-infrared spectrophotometric method for estimating the soluble solids in honeydew melons is presented. The method is based on a body transmittance geometry in which the angle between the source incident beam and the detector is approximately 45°. The regression analysis of the spectral and chemical data utilizes a ratio of two second derivatives and resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.85 and a standard error of calibration of 1.5. The numerator wavelength occurs in a carbohydrate absorption band, thus the method can be interpreted as a measurement of carbohydrates.

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Michael Thornton, James Torell and Daryl Richardson

A field study was conducted to determine the relationship between pungency, soluble solids content, and susceptibility to neck rot in onions. `Golden Cascade', `Sweet Amber', `Valdez', and `Vega' onions were planted in a field with low soil S content. Sulfur, as coarse-ground calcium sulfate, was applied as a band before planting. After harvest, yield was determined and a sample of jumbo onions was taken from each plot to determine pungency, dry matter content, and soluble solids content. Healthy bulbs were returned to storage and evaluated for neck rot after 4 months. Yield, grade, and neck rot incidence after storage were not affected by S treatments. However, there was a trend toward lower neck rot incidence at the highest S application rate (160 lb/acre). Pungency of jumbo onions increased after the application of S as gypsum. `Sweet Amber' and `Valdez' were less pungent than `Golden Cascade' or `Vega'. Neck rot susceptibility was evaluated with an inoculation test of detached bulb scales. Growth and sporulation of the neck rot pathogen Botrytis allii were reduced by S application. Pungency and neck rot susceptibility were negatively correlated.

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Pablo Cavagnaro, Douglas Senalik, Claudio Galmarini and Philipp Simon

Allium plants possess organosulfur compounds and carbohydrates that provide unique flavor and health-enhancing properties. In previous studies of onion F3 families, significant phenotypic and genetic correlations have been reported between pungency, in vitro antiplatelet activity (IVAA), and soluble solids content (SSC); although in other studies SSC and pungency have not always been correlated. In this study we analyzed SSC, pungency, garlic-induced in vitro antiplatelet activity and the content of three predominant thiosulfinates in bulbs from two garlic families obtained from unrelated self-pollinated plants. A strong positive correlation was observed between pungency and IVAA for both sample sets, indicating that it will be difficult to develop garlic populations with low pungency and high IVAA. Allicin was the most abundant thiosulfinate and its content was positively correlated with pungency and IVAA (r= 0.70 and 0.74, respectively). The thiosulfinates AllS(O)SPropenyl and AllS(O)SMe were also positively correlated with pungency and IVAA. When compared with IVAA, AllS(O)SMe had higher r values than AllS(O)SPropenyl (0.88 and 0.50, respectively). These differences could reflect differential platelet anti-aggregatory properties of different thiosulfinates. SSC was not correlated with IVAA, pungency, or thiosulfinates content, suggesting that soluble solids in garlic can be independently selected.