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Ryan W. Dickson, Paul R. Fisher, Sonali R. Padhye and William R. Argo

micronutrients as a function of pH ( Albano and Miller, 1998 ; Argo and Fisher, 2002 ). The solubility of inorganic Fe 3+ decreases 1000-fold for each unit increase in pH ( Lindsay, 1979 ). Decreased solubility results in low levels of water-extractable iron in

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Omaira Avila-Rostant, Adrian M. Lennon and Pathmanathan Umaharan

( Noda et al., 1994 ), presence of various metal ions ( Shoji et al., 2007 ), stacking of anthocyanins with copigments such as flavones and flavonols ( Goto and Kondo, 1991 ), and pH ( Harborne, 1988 ; Katsumoto et al., 2007 ; Stewart et al., 1975 ). As

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L. Zhang, J.R. Livingstone, Y. Tarui and E. Hirasawa

acid (CA) exhibited antifungal activity in stored fibroin gel ( Ayub et al., 1993 ). Therefore, we examined the postharvest effect of adding CA to the medium. For preparation of the vase solution of cut flowers, the pH was adjusted with CA, and 8

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Hirotoshi Tsuda, Hisato Kunitake, Yo Aoki, Akiko Oyama, Takuya Tetsumura, Haruki Komatsu and Katsunori Yoshioka

The plants of the genus Vaccinium are “acid-loving” and generally require soils with pH below 5.8 for achieving high vigor ( Hancock et al., 2008 ). Therefore, higher pH is one of the most important factors among the abiotic stresses limiting the

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Margaret G. Aiken, Holly L. Scoggins and Joyce G. Latimer

because of the rapid increase of ethylene in the air surrounding the plant ( Lougheed and Franklin, 1972 ; Olien and Bukovac, 1978 ). Another factor influencing efficacy is pH. Maintaining a solution pH between 4.0 and 4.5 when applying an ethephon spray

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James E. Altland, M. Gabriela Buamscha and Donald A. Horneck

at low pH (4.5 to 5.5). Macronutrient and micronutrient availability may not be sufficient to support plant growth when substrate pH is higher. Altland (2006b) reported reduced growth of japanese maple ( Acer palmatum var. atropurpureum Thunb

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Qi Zhang and Kevin Rue

shows moderate salinity sensitivity ( Marcum, 2007 ). Tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, and zoysiagrass are moderately tolerant to salinity, whereas bermudagrass and alkaligrass are highly tolerant ( Marcum, 2007 ). Alkalinity (high pH) and salinity often

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James E. Altland and M. Gabriela Buamscha

DFB to have low pH (3.7 to 4.4); little or no available nitrogen (N); relatively high water-extractable phosphorus (P; 10 to 28 mg·L −1 ) and potassium (K; 78 to 162 mg·L −1 ); low levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S); and moderate

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Richard V. Tyson, Eric H. Simonne, Danielle D. Treadwell, James M. White and Amarat Simonne

nitrifying bacteria for ammonium. Also, there is no scientifically established reconciling pH for these operating systems, which contain plants, fish, and nitrifiers—each with their own optimum environmental requirements. Recommended pH for tilapia is 6.0 to

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James E. Altland and Charles Krause

hammer mill can be modified such that it makes a suitable nursery substrate for short-production cycle crops ( Altland and Krause, 2009 ). One of the problems with switchgrass and other grass-based substrates is that pH of these ground materials is 7 to 7