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J.D. Mcafee and C.R. Rom

Alternative fruit thinners and pesticides are needed for certified organic fruit growers. A transient reduction in photosynthesis has proven to be an effective technique used for fruit thinning. Conversely, pesticides, which reduce Pn may be detrimental to plant growth. This study was developed to measure plant response to foliar applications of various organic acids as potential horticultural chemicals Treatments were applied to vegetative apple trees under controlled environmental conditions to study photosynthetic effects. CO2 assimilation significantly decreased temporarily 3 days after treatment with citric acid. Decreased trends of evapotranspiration were observed for all treatments 1 day after foliar application; however, not significant. Salicylic acid significantly decreased stomatal conductance 1 and 15 days after treatment. Average leaf area was not significantly affected but oxalic acid increased plant stem growth while acetic acid application reduced growth. This model system for screening new and alternative compounds will be a basis to study agents that may have potential to be used as certified pesticides or fruit thinning agents.

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V. Fernández-Ruiz, M.C. Sánchez-Mata, M. Cámara, M.E. Torija, C. Chaya, L. Galiana-Balaguer, S. Roselló and F. Nuez

The characterization of Lycopersicon germplasm for internal quality properties is essential to choose suitable donor parents for breeding programs. When donor parents belong to species of subgenus Eulycopersicon, which are phyletically closer to L. esculentum Mill., the recovery of agronomic traits is faster. When using these materials, a careful selection of donor parents which could improve several internal quality properties allows the acceleration of these breeding programs. In this work, we combine general determinations, such as soluble solid content, titratable acidity, pH, total sugars, pectic substances and total protein contents with precise high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), quantitations of individual compounds (vitamin C; citric, malic, fumaric and oxalic acids; glucose, fructose, and sucrose), in order to obtain a more complete characterization of flavor intensity and nutritional properties in Lycopersicon germplasm. The multidimensional analysis of all these variables allows classification of several accessions of L. esculentum Mill. and L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill., according to their usefulness for internal quality breeding programs of fresh tomato. The classification obtained and the comparison of accessions quality characteristics with selected controls show that five of the L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accessions tested can be of great usefulness for being used in breeding for internal quality characteristics. A flavor intensity ≈625% higher than commercial hybrids was obtained in the best accession tested. Some of these L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. accessions showed better flavor intensity properties than a high SSC L. cheesmanii Riley control, traditionally used in internal quality breeding. In addition, three of the L. esculentum Mill. accessions tested with medium-to-high flavor intensity value could be useful in advanced stages of breeding programs.

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James C. Fulton and Mark E. Uchanski

.32%, whereas this concentration dropped to 0.09% in the surrounding healthy tissue (status of tissue, fresh or dry, is unknown). Oxalic acid. Oxalic acid is a well-studied organic acid with multiple roles in plant physiology. Its role has been studied in

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Jingjin Yu, Hongmei Du, Ming Xu and Bingru Huang

identified in this study, including oxalic acid (68%), shikimic acid (71%), malonic acid (68%), threonic acid (55%), glyceric acid (71%), and galactaric acid (85%), whereas the abundance of citric acid increased; other organic acids such as pyruvic acid and

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Georgios Syrgianidis and Nikolaos Koutinas

three cultivars ( Table 2 ). The ascorbic acid content (vitamin C; mg/100 g fresh weight) measured by oxalic acid 1%; Koukourikou-Petridou et al., 2007 ) of the cultivar Golden Delicious was higher than that of ‘Granny Smith’. L-malic acid (g·L −1 ) and

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Zhengke Zhang, Zhaoyin Gao, Min Li, Meijiao Hu, Hui Gao, Dongping Yang and Bo Yang

. However, Zheng et al. (2012) demonstrated that the softening of ‘Zill’ mango fruit may be at least partially attributed to the involvement of PG that was suppressed by oxalic acid treatment during storage at room temperature. These findings indicate that

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Nikolaos Koutinas and Anastasia Giannakoula

), and total titratable acidity of the juiced flesh as described by Koukourikou-Petridou et al. (2007) were not different among cultivars ( Table 2 ). Ascorbic acid content (measured by oxalic acid 1%), total antioxidant capacity, and total phenols

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Thomas Sotiropoulos and Nikolaos Koutinas

content measured by oxalic acid 1% ( Haddad, 1977 ) of ‘Eris’ was not different from the other two cultivars ( Table 2 ). Regarding fruit color measurements ( McGuire, 1992 ), L parameter (lightness) of the cultivars Eris and Red Chief was higher than

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Thomas Sotiropoulos, Georgios Syrgianidis, Nikolaos Koutinas, Antonios Petridis and Dimitrios Almaliotis

; Effegi, Milan, Italy), ascorbic acid content (measured by oxalic acid 1%), total titratable acidity, and total antioxidant capacity as described by Koukourikou-Petridou et al. (2007) are reported in Table 2 . Total soluble solids and firmness of

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Yasutaka Kano, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Masami Sekine, Hideyuki Goto and Akira Sugiura

nitrogen fertilizer can cause several problems in the quality of leaf vegetables. For example, oxalic acid, which promotes calculus formation, accumulates in spinach plants in response to increased nitrogen nutrients ( Ota and Kagawa, 1996 ). Sugar content