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Charles Mainland

Mechanized harvest for processing markets has become commercially accepted for blackberries (Rubus sp.), highbush (Vaccinium corymbosum), lowbush (V. angustifolium) and rabbiteye (V. ashei), blueberries, cranberries (V. macrocarpon), grapes (Vitus labruscana, V. vinifera, V. rotundifolia, V. sp.), raspberries (Rubus ideaus) and to a lesser extent for strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa). Fruit bruising during harvest and sorting often contributes to reduced “eye appeal” and keeping quality for fresh sales. Highbush and rabbiteye blueberries are successfully machine harvested for fresh markets, however, high temperature and rain will often make product quality unacceptable. Highbush blueberries grown in cool climates and rabbiteye blueberries with greater inherent resistance to bruising have most consistently given acceptable quality. Cultivar improvement and equipment that causes less bruising during harvest and sorting will be required for increased mechanization for fresh markets. Mechanical pruning of blackberries, blueberries, grapes and raspberries can reduce costs by up to 80%. The audience will be involved in discussion of advancements in mechanization techniques.

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Louise Ferguson

Pistachios are the single most-successful plant introduction to the United States in the 20th century. Part of this success is due to the alternative production practices that have made this crop more economical to grow. Controlled deficit irrigation (CDI) can produce 25% savings in irrigation water with no adverse effects. Reclaimed drainage water can be used for in-season irrigation up to 6 dS/m. Nitrogen applications can be adjusted for crop load and alternate bearing. Foliar sprays of boron, copper, and zinc can replace heavy ground applications to alleviated these micronutrient deficiencies. Some early season insect damage can be tolerated due to the tree's ability to compensate for the damage by filling a higher percentage of the remaining nuts, Maintaining a clean orchard floor can limit some insect pests. Mechanical pruning has been demonstrated to be cheaper and cause no loss in yield. Foliar fungal diseases can be partially controlled by limiting trajectory angle, frequency, and duration of irrigation or by using buried drip irrigation systems. Soil-borne fungal diseases and nematode damage are controlled by using resistant rootstocks.

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Michael A. Arnold

Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckl.) were grown in 2.3-liter (#1) containers painted on interior surfaces with Spin Out™ (100 g Cu(OH)2/liter, or not. Seedlings were transplanted to the field and root observation boxes in June and October. The effects of two mechanical root-pruning techniques, traditional (cutting roots on exterior rootball surfaces) and butterfly pruning (splitting and splaying the rootball apart), to correct circling roots were compared with Spin Out-treated seedlings. Only the Spin Out-treated seedlings and fall-transplanted nonpruned controls had a net increase in height and caliper after 2 years in the field. Few roots >1.5 mm in diameter were severed in June with mechanical pruning techniques, while butterfly pruning severed roots up to 8.5 mm in diameter in October. Root regeneration shifted from predominantly small roots ≤0.5 mm in diameter in June to roots of between 0.5 and 1.5 mm in diameter in October. Spin Out-treated seedlings regenerated substantially more roots with diameters <1.0 mm at both transplant times. While midday water potentials were similar among treatments, Spin Out-treated seedlings had the least negative predawn water potentials, suggesting better recovery from midday water stress, particularly following October transplanting.

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Leonardo Lombardini

Twenty-five-year-old `Cape Fear', `Desirable', and `Kiowa' pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] trees were either not pruned, or subjected to single selective or mechanical pruning using a mechanical hedger [or hedge pruning (HP)] in the dormant season 2003. Canopy light interception, yield, and nut quality were monitored during a period of three years. Leaf area index and light interception were significantly affected during the first growing season after treatment application, but after three years canopies grew back to control levels. In general, there were small positive effects observed on yield and nut quality after pruning. Minor improvements were recorded for `Desirable', in which yield was affected positively by both pruning strategies in 2004. However, most effects disappeared by the third year. `Desirable' responded better than `Cape Fear', whereas no beneficial effects were recorded on `Kiowa'. In 2005, yield was significantly reduced in HP trees of `Cape Fear' and `Kiowa'. Alternate bearing index was unaffected by pruning treatment or cultivar. Kernel percentage increased only in HP `Desirable' trees in 2003 and 2004. Kernel quality was improved in HP `Cape Fear' and `Desirable' in the first growing season after treatment application, but not in 2004. In 2005, quality was again improved in HP `Desirable'. The results of the current study indicate that one-time pruning of pecan trees induce positive short-term effect on light, but not necessarily an increase in productivity and nut quality.

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L. Ferguson, J. Maranto and R. Beede

The effects of four mechanical pruning treatments [hedging, topping, hedging/topping, and hand-pruning (control)] on nut yield, nut quality, alternate bearing, and growth of 14-year-old female `Kerman' pistachio trees on Pistacia atlantica L. rootstocks were assessed. A single pruning was done before an “off,” or low-crop, year followed by retopping of those treatments incorporating topping the first year. Over 7 years, yields of hedged/topped and topped trees were equal to those of control trees, while hedged trees produced significantly less. The incidence of nonsplit shells and blank nuts were not affected by pruning. Nuts weighed more all years for hedged/topped and topped trees than for the others. Alternate-bearing indices within 7 years were lower for pruning treatments incorporating topping. Topping mitigated the fluctuating annual vegetative growth pattern and resulted in 27% of the shoots retaining buds through three successive alternate-bearing cycles after the year of treatment. Hedged/topped and topped trees had significantly less alternation in annual girth growth than control or hedged trees. These results demonstrated that two successive seasons of mechanical topping, started before the off year, produced changes in shoot growth, trunk growth, and bud retention that mitigated alternate bearing through three biennial cycles, without decreasing yield. Thus, severe annual hand-pruning could be used to prevent or minimize alternate bearing of pistachios.

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D.M. Glenn, D.L. Peterson and S.S. Miller

This study evaluated the total and marketable yield of three peach cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. `Autumnglo', `Harvester', and `Redhaven'] when mechanical pruning and harvesting systems were used and trees were grown under three irrigation regimes. All cultivars were trunk-shaken using an experimental inertial shaker on an over-the-row (OTR) shake–catch harvester. `Autumnglo' also was hand-harvested at all irrigation regimes. Fruit damage was not significantly affected by irrigation. A significant source of fruit damage was pruning debris that remained in the canopy after hedging and became lodged in the fruit-conveying system, resulting in cultivar effects on fruit damage. Total yield of firm-ripe fruit was similar among cultivars in 1987 and 1988. However, `Autumnglo' trees had a higher percentage of marketable fruit than `Redhaven' or `Harvester' in 1987 and 1991. Mechanical harvesting appeared to accelerate the decline of `Autumnglo' as shown by tree deaths and greater symptom expression of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus. The potential for a single mechanical harvest of peaches is limited because of the difficulty in managing the ripening window, the high potential for fruit damage, and the possibility of accelerated tree decline for disease-susceptible cultivars.

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Matthew W. Fidelibus

Growers in California’s San Joaquin Valley produced >25% of the world’s raisins in 2012, with a farm-gate value of >$590 million, making the United States the leading global producer of raisins. California’s traditional raisin-making method is a laborious process in which clusters of grapes (Vitis vinifera) are harvested by hand onto paper trays, which are left in the vineyard to dry. The drying fruit may need to be turned or rolled, tasks requiring manual labor, and the trays of dried raisins are also picked up by hand. Most California raisins continue to be made in this way, but in recent years, the declining availability and increasing cost of labor has prompted many growers to implement one of two mechanized production systems, “continuous tray” (CT) or “dry-on-vine” (DOV). In CT systems, machines are used to pick the berries, lay them onto a tray, and pick up the dried raisins. The CT system could be considered a short-term strategy: it is compatible with existing conventional ‘Thompson Seedless’ raisin vineyards and has been widely adopted. The DOV system could be considered a medium-term strategy: it is best suited for vineyards specifically designed for DOV, with early ripening grapevine cultivars on expansive trellis systems, which ensures timely drying, and capitalizes on the fact that sunlit row middles are not needed for fruit drying. Grapevine breeding programs are currently working toward the development of raisin grape cultivars with fruitful basal nodes, with fruit that dry naturally upon ripening. This is a long-term strategy to further reduce labor needs by enabling mechanical pruning in winter and eliminating the need for cane severance in the summer.

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Michael A. Arnold

Quercus shumardii Buckl. seedlings were grown for 3 or 7 months in 2.3-liter black plastic containers. Containers were either treated or not on interior surfaces with 100 g Cu(OH)2/liter latex carrier. Trees were transplanted in summer or fall to quantify post-transplant responses to mechanical correction or chemical prevention of circling roots. Four treatments were used at each transplant date; nonpruned seedlings from Cu(OH)2-treated or nontreated containers, and seedlings from nontreated containers in which two mechanical root pruning techniques were used, traditional severing of circling roots on the rootball periphery or splitting and splaying the bottom two-thirds of the rootball at transplant (butterfly pruning). Traditional root pruning severed more small-diameter roots (≤0.5 mm), while butterfly pruning severed more large-diameter roots. During the first 21 days following transplant most root regeneration was via elongation of intact root tips. Cu(OH)2-treated seedlings regenerated substantially more roots ≤1.0 mm in diameter and a greater root mass than mechanically root pruned or nonpruned seedlings. Both corrective mechanical pruning techniques resulted in greater predawn water stress during immediate post-transplant (21 days) establishment in October than seedlings chemically treated to prevent circling root development. Treatments that severed more roots and/or removed greater root mass were associated with decreased field performance and increased post-transplant water stress. Increased numbers of small- to medium-diameter new roots were associated with reduced post-transplant water stress and improved post-transplant shoot growth. Nonpruned and traditional root pruned seedlings grew little during the first two post-transplant growing seasons regardless of transplant date. Butterfly pruning resulted in severe dieback of shumard oak seedlings. Cu(OH)2-treated seedlings were the only ones to exhibit a gain in height or stem diameter after 2 years in the field.

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Silvia G. Mauri, H.C. Bittenbender, Kent D. Fleming and Loren D. Gautz

Marketable coffee (Coffea arabica) yield and cost of production under two systems of mechanized pruning—hedging and stumping— were investigated. Data were collected from 1997 to 2001—a single pruning cycle—on three cultivars on three farms on Kauai, Maui, and Molokai. Treatments were variations of hedging and stumping, including time of pruning, methods of re-growth control, and tree in-row spacing were applied to each coffee cultivar. Economic evaluation was based on a partial budget analysis of the actual costs per year of the different pruning systems used on each farm. Mechanical pruning costs per acre for best hedging and stumping treatments across cultivars were 90% and 83% less, respectively, than the current practice of manual pruning. Response to pruning system varied according to coffee cultivar, tree in-row spacing and farm location. The tall cultivar Mokka had higher yields when hedged at 5 ft (1.5 m) tall and 5 ft wide, and the semi-dwarf cultivar Yellow Catuai had higher yields when stumped at 2 ft (0.6 m) tall. Hedge pruning should be done early in the year, January to February, for the semi-dwarfs, `Yellow Catuai' and `Red Catuai', but can be delayed until May for `Mokka'. Annual topping in the hedging systems should be done January to May for `Yellow Catuai' but maybe delayed until May for `Mokka' and `Red Catuai' without yield loss. The economic evaluation revealed that the cost of stumping was higher than hedging. For `Yellow Catuai' on Kauai the economic evaluation indicated that although the cost of stumping was higher, the accompanying higher yields resulted in a higher gross margin for this system. When stumping, verti- cal branches can be set with a contact herbicide spray to avoid higher hand pruning costs without lowering yields. Stumps should be narrowed after stumping if spaced, 2.5 ft (0.75 m) the current standard in-row spacing for mechanical harvesting. Wide in-row spacing (5 ft) should be considered by growers when planting or re-planting.

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Bruce W. Wood

-type pruning. Efficacy of mechanical pruning in relatively low-light environments was first tested during the 1970s by Worley (1985) in which it was concluded (based on drip-irrigated ‘Desirable’, ‘Elliott’, and ‘Farley’) that annual cuts to one of each of