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James C. Sellmer, Nancy Ostiguy, Kelli Hoover and Kathleen M. Kelley

A mail survey was conducted in 2000 to determine awareness and use of integrated pest management (IPM) practices by nurseries in Pennsylvania. Survey participants were randomly selected from the Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, list of certified nurseries. Participants answered questions pertaining to awareness of common practices, frequency that IPM practices were employed, and specifics on monitoring and pest management decision-making processes. Responses were analyzed by Cluster Analysis (SPSS Inc., Chicago), which resulted in the formation of three distinct segments. The segments were labeled “IPM Savvy” (nursery managers who were more likely to employ IPM practices); “Part-time IPMers” (nursery managers who employed some IPM strategies and were interested in future adoption of IPM practices); and “Reluctant IPMers” (nursery managers who were least likely to employ IPM strategies). The “Part-time IPMers” and “Reluctant IPMers” segments represent a substantial part of the industry (51%), who continues to have concerns about the cost, efficacy, and implementation of IPM practices into their businesses. Overall, Pennsylvania growers are aware of IPM practices; however, maintaining permanent records of pests identified and pest management strategies employed remain low. Continued education is warranted to enhance pest monitoring skills and recordkeeping along with demonstrable evidence to the cost effectiveness and marketing benefits that the implementation of IPM practices offer the nursery operators.

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Don C. Wilkerson, Dan R. Lineberger and Priscilla J. Files

In response to the goals set forth in Target 2000, a long-range environmental plan for the Texas/Floral Industry developed by the TAMU Nursery/Floral Management Team in cooperation with the Texas Association of Nurserymen (TAN), an interactive, World Wide Web-based integrated pest management program (hortIPM) has been developed for commercial nursery and greenhouse growers. The objective of Target 2000 is to assist growers in initiation of innovative cultural and structural practices, which will result in the following changes by the year 2000: 1) reduce water consumption to 1990 levels; 2) reduce current fertilizer and pesticide usage by 50%; 3) lower current energy consumption by 25%; 4) reduce current solid wastes from agricultural plastics by 75%; 5) develop applications for municipal wastes and composted materials for nursery and floral crop production. More so than in any other cropping system, ornamental stock producers apply pesticides on a calendar basis regardless of pest damage to prevent cosmetic injury to their crops, thus reducing their marketability. As justification for this misuse of insecticides, growers cite the extraordinary low damage thresholds associated with their crops. Nursery and floral crops producers that have better access to educational resources and recommendations may be more inclined to follow biologically sound pest management principles. HortIPM is designed as a tool to facilitate access to pest management information and enhance IPM programs already in place. Currently, hortIPM is in the developmental phase, on the cusp of release to a number of sites for preliminary evaluation.

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David A. Shaw

Achieving adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) practices by professional landscape managers is a common goal of university research and extension personnel, governmental and regulatory agencies, industry, and the public. IPM is developed and promoted through cooperation of university, state, and industry groups in research and educational programs. Publications and educational events are major means of promoting IPM to landscape professionals. While large theater-style seminars may provide the advantage of reaching as many as 500 people at one time, landscape clientele have shown favor for the smallgroup, hands-on type of seminar for application technology and IPM methodologies. The impact of research and educational programs on IPM adoption tends to be variable, depending on the pest, the potential for effective control, the control practices to be undertaken, and economic consequences. Adoption of several biological control programs has been indicated. The pesticide-use data collected from 1992 to 1994 indicate trends in reduced use of some pesticides and shifts to less toxic materials. Unfortunately, these data do not account for variability in pest activity from year to year, and not all pesticide applicators are reporting. Pressure from the public to control pests while minimizing the use of pesticides also indicates adoption of IPM. Additional evaluations are necessary to assess adoption of current and future IPM programs.

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Joseph. M. Kemble, Goeff W. Zehnder, W. Robert Goodman, Mahefatiana Andrianifahanana, Ellen M. Bauske, Edward J. Sikora and John F. Murphy

The Alabama Tomato Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program was demonstrated during two growing seasons in southeastern Alabama. The program consisted of a twice-a-week insect/disease scouting service combined with a weather-timed spray program (TOM-CAST). On average, growers made four fewer insecticide applications and three to four fewer fungicide applications when following the IPM program compared to their conventional, calendar-based program. There was no apparent reduction in yield when following the IPM program. An economic analysis indicated that growers following the IPM program saved an average of $54.36/acre ($134.32/ha).

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Robert T. Eddy and Clifford S. Sadof

Horticulture businesses will be encouraged to hire qualified individuals with disabilities due to the enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Maintaining a safe workplace is a considerable challenge due to the use and storage of restricted-use pesticides. In a vocational training program, two persons with mental disabilities were trained to be effective Integrated Pest Management scouts using systematic teaching procedures. Trainees acquired employable skills while providing a service that enabled management to reduce use of conventional pesticides on a greenhouse poinsettia crop by up to 65%.

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Mary Jane Else, Hilary A. Sandler and Scott Schluter

A system of mapping weed infestations in cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) was developed that enables growers to incorporate integrated pest management practices into their weed control program. This system provides growers with information on the location of weeds and the area of weed patches, but differs from other weed mapping systems in that information on control priorities is included on the maps. Weed management efforts can then be directed to the most economically damaging weeds first. The mapping system also provides growers with a permanent record that can be used to communicate with staff and to evaluate weed management strategies.

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J.T. Moody and M.C. Halbrooks

The ornamental horticulture industry in South Carolina has expanded significantly over the last decade. Today, concerns regarding environmental and public health, and stricter regulations of pesticide use, are creating incentives for growers to evaluate alternative methods of pest control. Nursery producers currently use an array of chemicals in an attempt to control pests including insects, weeds, and diseases. Integrated pest management (IPM) provides an opportunity to reduce chemical reliance. The overall objective of this extension program is to collect and collate information relevant to the implementation of an IPM program. The first year, 1989-90, surveys were developed to determine key factors related nursery pest management. Types of data collected included: key pest species; pest-plant relationships; grower action responses to pest problems; types and frequency of pesticide use. The second year, 1990-91, involved implementing IPM strategies such as: cultural methods; use of horticultural oils, soaps, and lower risk pesticides; and spot treatment applications to help maintain pest populations below economically damaging levels. Improvements in pest management included; reduced chemical applications, reduced associated environmental risks, and maintenance of aesthetic quality of plants.

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James W. Rushing, Wilton P. Cook and Stanley Schumann

Water analyses from all commercial tomato packinghouse dump tanks in South Carolina in 1989 revealed that heavy metals and pesticides accumulate in the dump tank water throughout the course of daily operation. The amount that accumulated varied widely as follows: esfenvalerate, 0.6 to 13.8 ppb; chlorothalonil, 0.1 to 2.85 ppm; copper, 2.0 to 7.3 ppm; manganese, 0.3 to 2.4 ppm. Contamination was lowest when growers were implementing integrated pest management (IPM) practices during production.

In 1990, tomatoes were grown under the following pest management practices: IPM protocol; modified IPM with more frequent spray; or weekly pesticide application regardless of pest pressure. In a small scale dump tank study the water used for tomatoes on the weekly spray schedule had from 2 to 10 times the amount of pesticide and metal residues found in water used for tomatoes grown under IPM. These results confirm that IPM programs can be effective in reducing residues in tomato packinghouse wastewater.

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J.L. Olsen

Oregon State University (OSU) developed an integrated pest management (IPM) program for hazelnut (Corylus avellana.) in the early 1980s, through a USDA grant. Sampling schemes and action thresholds were refined over a period of 4 years for the filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana), filbert aphid (Myzocallis coryli), filbert leafroller (Archips rosanus.), and obliquebanded leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana), which are the most important insect pests in Oregon hazelnuts. A classical biological approach was employed in the mid-1980s when the filbert aphid parasitoid, Trioxys pallidus, was imported from Europe. Grower survey results for 1981 and 1997 showed that the amount of pesticides applied for filbert aphid control has declined by 93%. The registration of synthetic pyrethroids for filbertworm control and the use of pheromone trapping have reduced the amount of active ingredient applied in the industry by 96%. The annual cost savings to Oregon hazelnut growers due to use of the OSU IPM program are estimated at $0.5 million. Current research focuses on the use of less toxic insecticides, such as insect growth regulators for filbertworm and leafroller control. The most serious hazelnut disease, eastern filbert blight (EFB) caused by the fungus Anisogramma anomala was first reported in the Pacific northwestern U.S. in 1973. It has spread its way through two thirds of the hazelnut acreage. Current OSU IPM recommendations include preventative fungicide sprays in spring, scouting for and cutting out infections, and replacement of the most susceptible cultivars when possible. The long-term approach to EFB control is the development of EFB immune varieties.

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Juan A. Villanueva-Jiménez and Marjorie A. Hoy

Florida citrus nursery growers were surveyed to learn about their citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton) (CLM) management practices as a preliminary step in developing an integrated pest management (IPM) program. All responses were kept anonymous. Survey responses from growers producing ≈4.2 million trees annually were obtained, which represents most of the estimated 5.2 million trees required to annually replant Florida groves. Large nurseries (20%) each produced ≥100,000 trees per year and jointly provided 88% of the trees produced annually. Small nurseries (80%) each produced <100,000 trees per year. The citrus leafminer was ranked the most important pest in nurseries during 1995. Pesticides used for CLM control included avermectin, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, fenoxycarb, diflubenzuron, and sulfur, in order of importance. Oil and soap also were used. Growers were concerned about the possibility that the CLM will develop resistance to pesticides. Producers potentially were willing to monitor CLM populations, switch pesticide types to improve survival of parasitoids of the CLM, and leave untreated trees inside the nursery to serve as refuges for CLM parasitoids. In order of importance, pest management advice was provided by private chemical companies, the Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide produced by the University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS), UF/IFAS personnel, grower magazines, private consultants, the Florida Citrus Nurserymen's Association, and other growers.