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lowest survival of litchi air-layering in control. The findings of Borah and Das (2000) are also in close conformity. Table 1. Effect of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentrations on rooting percentage, number of roots, and fresh and dry weight of roots

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et al., 2004 ), but no data are available for the propagation of this rootstock by hardwood cuttings. Many external factors such as cutting length and diameter, applied indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) concentration, date of cutting collection, and

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treated with talc-based indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at 0, 1000, 3000, or 8000 ppm. More of the cuttings of C. cornuta and V. acerifolium transplanted at 39 weeks, after a cold period, survived than did cuttings transplanted at 8 weeks after sticking

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, scale bar =1 cm; ( G ) plants acclimatized in a shady area (≈60% shade); ( H ) plants established in the field (≈2 years). WPM = woody plant medium; BA = 6-Benzylaminopurine; NAA = α-naphthaleneacetic acid; IBA = indole-3-butyric acid. The creamy white

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.59 + 0.064 (IBA), r 2 = 0.25, P < 0.05. Vertical lines = ± 1 se . IBA = indole-3-butyric acid. Regression analysis performed on ex vitro rooting data revealed no significant linear or quadratic trends. The highest concentration of K-IBA (41.4 μM

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Micropropagation of Centaurea macrocephala Pushk. ex Willd. was achieved by subculturing of vertically split shoots and division of axillary buds on MS-based medium with 0.44 μm BA. A proliferation rate of 2.0 per 16-day culture period was obtained. Seventy percent of microcuttings obtained through in vitro culture could be rooted on a modified Hyponex medium with 25 μM IBA. All plantlets were readily acclimatized and grown in a greenhouse. Chemical names used: benzylaminopurine (BA); indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

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Shoots were regenerated from cotyledons of mature stored seed of three peach rootstock cultivars (`Flordaguard', `Nemared', and `Medaguard'). Shoot regeneration rates were highest when cotyledons were cultured for 3 weeks in darkness on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 2.5% sucrose and a combination of IBA (1.25 or 2.5 μm) and TDZ (6.25 or 12.5 μm). Regeneration rates for `Flordaguard', `Nemared', and `Nemaguard' were as high as 60%, 33%, and 6%, respectively. Length of seed storage (1 to 3 years) did not affect regeneration rates. Seventy percent of regenerated shoots produced rooted plants. This regeneration method is rapid and simple, and stored seed can be used year-round. It may be a useful regeneration system for gene transfer in seed-propagated peach rootstocks. Chemical names used: 5 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); thidiazuron (TDZ).

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Stem cuttings of Arbutus andrachne L. were taken from basal or terminal portions of branches in October and treated with acid or salt forms of IBA or NAA at several concentrations. Also, the effects of wounding and propagation medium were assessed. Auxin was necessary for root formation, IBA acid being most effective. In general, salt forms of IBA and NAA were less effective than acid forms. Concentration of auxin had a significant effect on rooting regardless of auxin type or chemical form. The greatest rooting percentage, root number, length, and fresh and dry weights were exhibited by basal cuttings treated with 24 mm IBA. Position of the cutting on the branch did not affect rooting except when the IBA acid form was used; basal cuttings were then superior to terminal ones. Wounding, by making two opposite longitudinal incisions at the base of the cutting, increased rooting. The propagation medium had a significant effect on adventitious root formation, which was enhanced with increasing perlite percentage in the medium up to 100%. Chemical names used:1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA); α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Abstract

A single spray of 2.5 or 5% CaCl2 applied 14 days before harvest significantly reduced breakdown of ‘Spartan’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) in each of 4 consecutive years and caused no residual tree or crop damage. Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with CaCl2 led to significant reductions in breakdown in only 1 of the 3 seasons in which it was tested. Ca applied in 1 season did not influence fruit Ca levels the next year. Both 2.5 and 5% CaCl2 applied in 1973 significantly increased Ca in fruit peel, flesh and core tissues. Although IBA did not increase fruit Ca levels, a strong negative relationship between fruit Ca and breakdown susceptibility was evidenced by analyses in 3 crop years.

Fruits located near the top of the trees were lower in flesh Ca than those from the bottom. This, plus inadequate spray coverage in the top of the tree canopies, led to poor control of breakdown in these fruits when the sprays were applied at lx, 3x or 6x concentration with an air-blast orchard sprayer using 3342, 1114, and 557 1 of water per hectare, respectively.

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Seven concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), seven concentrations of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), and a nonauxin control were tested over three growth stages to determine their ability to promote adventitious rooting of stem cuttings from 3- and 4-year-old stock plants of virginia pine (Pinus virginiana Mill.). Cuttings were harvested September 2000 (semi-hardwood), February 2001 (hardwood), June 2001 (softwood), and October 2001 (semi-hardwood), treated with auxin concentrations ranging from 0 to 64 mm and placed under intermittent mist in a greenhouse. Rooting percentage, percent mortality, number of primary roots, total root length, root symmetry, root angle, and root diameter were assessed following 16 weeks. Growth stage affected every rooting trait measured except root symmetry and diameter. Auxin type affected total root length and root diameter, while auxin concentration affected every rooting trait except root angle. The highest predicted rooting percentages (46%) occurred when semi-hardwood cuttings were collected in September 2000 and treated with 7 mm auxin. Cuttings collected within the same growing season (2001) exhibited the highest predicted rooting percentage (33%) when softwood cuttings were treated with 6 mm auxin. Semi-hardwood cuttings rooted in 2001 produced the greatest number of roots and root lengths. Root diameter was significantly greater when NAA rather than IBA was applied, especially at higher concentrations.

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