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B. Tisserat and S.F. Vaughn

The growth (fresh weight), morphogenesis (number of needles and roots and shoot length) and monoterpene (α- and β-pinene) levels were determined in Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) seedlings exposed to 350, 1,500, 3,000, 10,000, or 30,000 μmol·mol-1 CO2 for 30 days under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings exposed to ultra-high levels (i.e., ≥3000 μmol·mol-1 CO2) had significantly higher (P = 0.05) fresh weight, needle number, root number, and shoot lengths compared to seedlings grown under ambient air (350 μmol·mol-1 CO2). Seedling fresh weights, number of roots, shoot length, and number of needles from pine seedlings supplemented with 10,000 μmol·mol-1 CO2 increased 341%, 200%, 74%, and 75 %, respectively, when compared to seedlings grown without any CO2 enrichment. In addition, α- and β-pinene levels in seedlings increased under ultra-high CO2 levels. The dominant monoterpene, α-pinene, increased 57% in seedlings grown under 10,000 μmol·mol-1 CO2 compared to levels obtained under 350 μmol·mol-1 CO2.

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Scott Henderson, David Gholami and Youbin Zheng

a crop. When this variation in water usage is not accounted for when irrigating, areas of under- and over-watering may develop, which can reduce plant growth through drought ( Gindaba et al., 2005 ) or flooding stress ( Olivella et al., 2000 ). Many

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R. Paul Schreiner and Jungmin Lee

relatively small surface area of the pots (20% of the vineyard floor surface area) intercepts little rainfall ( Schreiner et al., 2013 ). This article reports the impact of a post-véraison water deficit on vine growth, yield, and nutrient status in leaves and

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Wallace G. Pill

Growth Media

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Sylvie Jenni, Katrine A. Stewart, Gaétan Bourgeois and Daniel C. Cloutier

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Kelly M. Stanton, Sally S. Weeks, Michael N. Dana and Michael V. Mickelbart

restoration and less intensively managed areas where growth form is relatively unimportant. If they are to be used in more formal landscapes, it is important to know how to manage them for optimal growth, form, and flowering. Meadowsweet and steeplebush

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Melek Ekinci, Ertan Yildirim, Atilla Dursun and Metin Turan

Salinity is one of the most serious abiotic stress factors limiting crop productivity. Worldwide, 100 million ha or 5% of the arable land is adversely affected by high salt concentrations reducing crop growth and yield ( Ghassemi et al., 1995 ). In

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Emilio Nicolás, Trinitario Ferrandez, José Salvador Rubio, Juan José Alarcón and Ma Jesús Sánchez-Blanco

, there has been increased interest in plants that have low water requirements. In this sense, the use of native species of wild flora may be an interesting practice because they usually are not water-wasters and their growth patterns are very well adapted

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Bizhen Hu, Mark A. Bennett and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

seedlings from hetero- to autotrophy; i.e., from relying on seed reserves to photosynthesis for growth. Global, standardized protocols for estimating seed vigor define it as the inherent potential of seed from different seed lots to develop normal seedlings

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Xiuming Hao, Guang Wen, Athanasios P. Papadopoulos and Shalin Khosla

and Jolliffe, 1996 ). Lighting or improved natural light penetration into the lower part of canopy increases cucumber fruit growth and improves the fruit quality ( Adams et al., 2002 ; Aikman, 1989 ; Schapendonk and Brouver, 1984 ); such improved