a fungal disease caused by P. citricarpa ( Er et al., 2013 ). The disease was found in Taiwan, South Africa, and China in 1919, 1920, and 1936, respectively ( Kotzé, 1981 ; Wang et al., 2012 ). Later in the 1980s, CBS was officially found in
Rust ( Puccinia sp.) is a common fungal disease of kentucky bluegrass (KBG; Poa pratensis L.), one of the most commonly used cool-season turfgrasses on athletic fields, recreation areas, sod farms, and residential lawns. Diseased turf typically
, their cultivar hosts, and sample origin. Results Field observations and symptoms. A preharvest fungal disease survey on rambutan was conducted at the Waiakea Agricultural Experiment Station and at a local farm. Disease symptoms were visible on leaves
addition, it has been found resistant to other fungal diseases incited by Alternaria spp., Colletotrichum spp., and Cercospora spp., and it yields fruit over a longer period than varieties commonly grown at present in Bangladesh (M.A.T. Masud
Citrus black spot is a fungal disease caused by G . citricarpa Kiely [anamorph Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine) van der Aa]. This disease was first described in Australia in the 1890s and has since been found in the humid subtropical regions
Commercial producers of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) in the mid-Atlantic region frequently experience losses of fruit size and quality from the fungal diseases powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum) and black rot (Didymella bryoniae). In addition to loss of fruit size in some cultivars, the diseases can result in poor quality handles (fruit stems) and pre- and postharvest decay. Since the pumpkins are grown for ornamental use, their appearance, size, and quality are important in marketing strategies. Applications of recommended fungicides during the growing season, although costly, reduce losses in fruit size and quality in susceptible cultivars during years in which the pathogens become established prior to fruit maturity. Larger-fruited cultivars, in general, benefit more from fungicide application than smaller-fruited types in fruit weight, although both benefit in improved handle quality. Cultivars with apparent tolerance to fungal diseases are identified for producers who choose not to use fungicides.
Production of commercial lettuce Lactuca sativa L. is plagued by a wide range of diseases and insects not yet controlled or only imperfectly controlled. These include the viral, virus-like, and mycoplasma diseases such as lettuce mosaic, cucumber mosaic, broad bean wilt, western yellows, big vein, and aster yellows; the fungal diseases—downy mildew and sclerotinia drop; and such insect pests as cabbage looper, beet army worm, white flies, and several species of aphids.
applying insecticide to control spotted wing drosophila in blueberry. Excessive cooling afterward could wash off the insecticide, as well as any other chemicals that might be used for controlling insect pests and fungal diseases ( Gautam et al., 2016
Cucumber crop was established in conservation tillage from gel-sown germinated seed. Fungicides (flutolanil + metalaxyl) were mixed with gel or applied as a drench after seeding to control Rhizoctonia and Pythium seedling diseases. The benefit of mixing fungicides with gel was similar to drenching the seeded area with fungicides. There was no added advantage of using germinated seed for cucumber production in conservation tillage. In fact, germinated seed was more susceptible to fungal diseases in the absence of fungicides. Crop yield was greater in conventionally-prepared soil than in conservation tillage.
Fruit cullage due to postharvest-expressed diseases and disorders of `Anjou' pear amounted to $1.4–2.4 million annually to northwest growers in 1991–93. Fungal diseases, including Penicillium spp., Botrytis cinerea, and Mucor spp. accounted for the majority of losses. Scald, skin speckling, and scuffing are listed by packinghouse managers as major contributing disorders. A 3-year study has examined reasons for losses and methods to reduce losses through improved postharvest handling. Maturity at harvest, fruit nutrient status, time of packing, temperature management, and improved handling practices provide the basis for cullage.