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Lisa Chen Cushman, H. Brent Pemberton, J. Creighton Miller Jr. and John W. Kelly

Simulated shipping (storage) experiments were conducted to determine the effects of shipping temperature and duration on flower longevity and leaf abscission of pot rose Rosa L. `Meijikatar' (= Orange Sunblaze) and `Meirutral' (= Red Sunblaze). In addition, three flower stages (1 = tight bud, calyx not reflexing; 2 = showing color, calyx reflexing, no petals reflexed; 3 = full color, petals beginning to reflex, traditional bud stage) were selected immediately prior to storing plants at 4, 16, or 28 °C for 2, 4, or 6 days. The experiment was conducted during the summer and repeated during the winter. Evaluations were made in an interior environment at 21 °C for both experiments. `Meirutral' exhibited longer poststorage longevity and less leaf abscission than `Meijikatar' in both experiments. Flowers of both cultivars advanced by about one stage during storage at temperatures greater than 4 °C in summer, but developed more slowly in winter. Results from both experiments showed that plants stored at 4 °C had the longest poststorage floral longevity, the best flower quality, and the least leaf abscission, regardless of cultivar, storage duration, or flower stage at the beginning of storage. For plants stored at 16 °C, floral longevity decreased and leaf abscission increased when the duration was longer than 4 days. At 28 °C, flower longevity decreased and leaf abscission increased, especially at durations longer than 2 days. In the winter experiment, there was no leaf abscission on plants placed in the dark at 21 °C and watered during storage treatments lasting up to 6 days. In the summer experiment, the younger the flower, the more it was negatively affected by high storage temperature. Overall, poststorage floral longevity was longer in the summer than the winter experiment.

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Dave Llewellyn, Katherine Schiestel and Youbin Zheng

different nutrient solution formulations on yield and cut flower quality of gerbera ( Gerbera jamesonii ) grown in soilless culture system Afr. J. Agr. Res. 6 4910 4919 Tsirogiannis, I. Katsoulas, N. Kittas, C. 2010 Effect of irrigation scheduling on gerbera

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Todd J. Cavins and John M. Dole

Narcissus L. `Music Hall', N. `Tahiti', Tulipa L. `Couleur Cardinal', and T. `White Emperor' bulbs were precooled at 5 °C for 0 or 5 weeks and planted 15, 30, or 45 cm deep (from bulb base) into raised ground beds under 0%, 30%, or 60% shade. Plant growth was monitored for two consecutive years after planting. Precooling reduced the percentage of T. `White Emperor' that flowered but did not affect flowering percentage of the other cultivars. Precooling delayed anthesis in one or both years for all cultivars. The greatest percentage of bulbs flowered when planted 15 cm deep and the 45-cm planting depth reduced flowering percentage. Increasing planting depth delayed anthesis for all cultivars. Increasing shade increased stem lengths in one or both years for all cultivars, but did not influence flowering percentage. Perennialization was low for all cultivars regardless of treatment. Cultivar differences in perennialization occurred; in year 2 up to 30% of N. `Tahiti' bulbs flowered vs. 32% for `Music Hall' and up to 30% of T. `White Emperor' bulbs flowered vs. only 22% of `Couleur Cardinal'.

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Lindsay J. Davies, Ian R. Brooking, Jocelyn L. Catley and Elizabeth A. Halligan

Tubers of Sandersonia aurantiaca Hook. were soaked in 1000 mg·L-1 GA3, 20 mg·L-1 uniconazole, 200 mg·L-1 benzyladenine, or water for 2 hours and then sprouted at 12, 18, or 24 °C. The effects of these treatments on flower stem quality were then determined at forcing temperatures of 18, 24, or 30 °C. Stem length increased with sprouting temperature only at a forcing temperature of 18 °C. Floret numbers increased with sprouting temperature at all forcing temperatures, but the effect was greatest at the 18 °C forcing temperature. The 12 °C sprouting treatment reduced floret numbers at all forcing temperatures. Soaking tubers in GA3 increased stem length but drastically reduced floret numbers, while soaking in uniconazole reduced stem length but had no significant effect on floret numbers. Soaking in BA strongly promoted branching, which resulted in large increases (>30%) in floret numbers per stem with little change in stem length. Of the three growth regulators, only BA was effective in improving cut flower stem quality. Chemical names used: gibberellic acid (GA3); (E)-(+)-(S)-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-pent-1-ene-3 -ol (uniconazole); N 6-benzylamino purine (benzyladenine; BA).

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Katsumi Ohta, Mika Suzuki, Shingo Matsumoto, Takashi Hosoki and Nobuo Kobayashi

We previously reported that growth of lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinn.] seedlings is accelerated by amending the growing medium with 1% (w/w) chitosan. This finding prompted us to search for organic nitrogenous other substances like chitosan which could accelerate seedling growth. Seeds of E. grandiflorum `Peter blue line 2'were sown in a sandy loam growing medium containing 1% (w/w) chitosan, tryptone, casein, collagen or gelatin. At eleven weeks after sowing, leaf length and width, fresh and dry weights of the shoots and roots of twelve plants were determined for each treatment. Eleven weeks after sowing, the leaves at the fifth node had expanded in the chitosan, tryptone and collagen treatments while the leaves of the third node had not yet expanded in control plants. Fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots were significantly greater for plants grown in media amended with chitosan or tryptone. Percent nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) in the shoots and roots and percent phosphorus (P) in the shoots was greater only in the N side dressing treatment. The nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration was significantly greater in media amended with tryptone or collagen compared to the other treatments.

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Charlotte M. Guimond, Gregory A. Lang and Preston K. Andrews

To examine the effect of timing and severity of summer pruning on flower bud initiation and vegetative growth, 4-year-old `Bing' cherry trees (Prunus avium L.) were pruned at 31, 34, 37, 38, or 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) with heading cuts 20 cm from the base of current-season lateral shoot growth, or at 38 DAFB by heading current-season lateral shoot growth at 15, 20, 25, or 30 cm from the base of the shoot. The influence of heading cut position between nodes also was examined by cutting at a point (≈20 cm from the shoot base) just above or below a node, or in the middle of an internode. Summer pruning influenced the number of both flower buds and lateral shoots subsequently formed on the shoots. All of the timings and pruning lengths significantly increased the number of both flower buds and lateral shoots, but differences between pruning times were not significant. There was significantly less regrowth when shoots were pruned just below a node or in the center of an internode, rather than just above a node, suggesting that the length of the remaining stub may inhibit regrowth somewhat. The coefficient of determination (r 2) between flower bud number and regrowth ranged from -0.34 to -0.45. In young high-density sweet cherry plantings, summer pruning may be useful for increasing flower bud formation on current-season shoots. The time of pruning, length of the shoots after pruning, and location of the pruning cut can influence subsequent flower bud formation and vegetative regrowth.

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Shawn D. Lyons, William B. Miller, H. Christian Wien and Neil S. Mattson

When grown in containers, pineapple lily (Eucomis sp.) can produce excessively long foliage and tall scapes, particularly in cultivars with tall pineapple lily (Eucomis comosa) parentage. Height control, through the use of plant growth regulators (PGRs), is necessary to improve crop quality of potted pineapple lily. In year 1 of these trials, bulbs of cultivars Reuben, Tugela Jade, and Tugela Gem were given substrate drenches of flurprimidol or paclobutrazol, each at 2, 4, or 6 mg per 6-inch pot. Drenches were applied at the “visible inflorescence” stage. As concentration increased, scapes were generally shorter in all cultivars for both PGRs, but there was no effect on foliage length or production time. At the rates tested, the reduction in scape length was insufficient to produce marketable plants of the three cultivars. In the second year, substrate drenches were applied at an earlier stage than in year 1, at “leaf whorl emergence,” when shoots were about 7 cm tall. The PGR treatments were notably more effective at controlling plant height in the second year. As concentration increased, scape and foliage length was reduced relative to the controls in all three cultivars for both PGRs. For all cultivars, inflorescence leaning and toppling were sharply reduced at all application rates compared with untreated controls. The reduction in plant height observed in year 2, particularly in plants treated with 4 or 6 mg/pot, resulted in plants with compact scapes and foliage proportional with their 6-inch containers.

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Reza Saeedi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Amir H. Khoshgoftarmanesh and Mohammad R. Sabzalian

Lisianthus is one of the most important specialty cut flowers in the world. Various greenhouse conditions and inadequate evapotranspiration can disturb the transport of calcium and impair its uptake by plants. This study aimed to compare the effects of calcium amino acid chelates and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on flower production, quality, and postharvest life of cut ‘Cinderella Lime’ lisianthus. Therefore, nutrient solutions containing calcium amino acid chelates (1%) were prepared using calcium and equal concentrations of lysine, threonine, or methionine. The control treatment was a solution without amino acids and calcium. Calcium concentrations of flowering stems were significantly higher in plants treated with calcium amino acid chelates than those treated with amino acids or the control treatment. Treatment with calcium methionine chelate led to significantly higher flower numbers compared with treatment with free amino acids and the control treatment. Moreover, calcium amino acid chelates effectively improved the fresh and dry mass of the flowering stems in comparison with the control plants. In summary, among all calcium sources, calcium lysine chelate could most effectively enhance the postharvest life of lisianthus cut flowers.

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Liu Yang, Zhongkui Xie, Zhijiang Wu, Yajun Wang, Zhihong Guo, Yubao Zhang and Ruoyu Wang

is favored by Chinese customers; as a result, it is one of the three most popular lily cultivars in China ( Yamagishi and Akagi, 2013 ). The flower quality is mainly related to plant height, flower number per plant, and flower diameter ( Lindsay et al

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Lisa Chen Cushman, H. Brent Pemberton and John W. Kelly

Experiments were conducted to study the interaction of cultivar, flower stage, silver thiosulfate (STS), and BA on flower senescence and leaf abscission in greenhouse-grown potted miniature roses. Plants of Rosa L. `Meijikatar' (Orange Sunblaze) and `Meirutral' (Red Sunblaze) were sprayed with several concentrations of STS and BA in factorial combination. In winter, plants were sprayed with STS at 0 or 2 mm and BA at 0, 0.02,0.04,0.11,0.22, or 0.44 mm In spring, flowers at three stages of development were sprayed with STS at 0,2, or 3 mm, and BA at 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.22, or 0.44 mm One day after treatment in both experiments, plants were placed in darkness at 16C for 4 days to simulate shipping, and then they were evaluated in a controlled environment at 21C. Poststorage floral longevity (PSFL) was longer for `Meirutral' than for `Meijikatar' plants, regardless of chemical treatment or flower stage. Flowers that were in the bud stage (stage 1) before simulated shipping lasted longer than flowers showing color (stages 2 and 3), regardless of cultivar or chemical treatment. Combinations of STS and BA did not increase PSFL compared to STS alone. Plants treated with 2 or 3 mm STS exhibited longer PSFL than nontreated plants; however, 2 and 3 mm were about equally effective. STS at 4 mm was phytotoxic in a preliminary experiment. Applying BA alone did not affect PSFL, but did improve postharvest flower opening on `Meijikatar' plants about the same as STS applied alone. The large flowering cultivars represented by `Meijikatar' and `Meirutral' appear to be nonresponsive to BA. A star-shaped malformation was induced on `Meijikatar' and `Meirutral' plants by simulated shipping and was not prevented by STS or BA. Chemical name used: N-(phenylmethyl) -1H-purin-6-amine (BA).