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Wenjing Guan, Xin Zhao and Donald J. Huber

consumer demand for high-quality produce ( Rouphael et al., 2010 ). In addition to TSS and flesh firmness, the most commonly evaluated fruit quality attributes for cucurbits, investigations of fruit quality of grafted plants have been expanded to fruit

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Masahiko Fumuro and Naoki Sakurai

fruit is flesh firmness. Traditionally, this index is measured by destructive methods using a Magness-Taylor-type penetrometer. Because this technique involves penetrating the fruit flesh with a plunger, followed by recordings of maximum force, the fruit

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Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed and Dwayne B. Visser

before applications and again after each weekly drop count. Parameters of fruit quality [flesh firmness, skin color, flesh color, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), starch index (SI), and internal ethylene concentration (IEC)] were

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Gerald R. Brown and Dwight Wolfe

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David Sugar and Sally R. Basile

`Comice' pears (Pyrus communis) harvested early in the maturity range needed 25-31 days of storage at 0 °C to develop the capacity to ripen to an average firmness of 5 lbf within 5 days after being moved to 20 °C. After 24 h exposure to 100 ppm ethylene at 20 °C applied immediately after harvest, 17-27 days additional chilling were needed to develop ripening capacity, while ethylene exposure for 48 hours required an additional 7-17 days chilling. After 72 h ethylene exposure, ripeness was achieved within 5 days following 3 days cold storage, the minimum duration tested. Similar results were obtained when the sequence of ethylene treatment followed by cold storage was reversed. This technique may be applied to reduce the amount of time that `Comice' pears must be stored after harvest before marketing fruit with the capacity to ripen.

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Ming-Wei S. Kao, Jeffrey K. Brecht and Jeffrey G. Williamson

high-temperature retort treatment ( Robertson et al., 1992 ). The main distinction between NMF and MF peaches is that the former lack the rapid loss of flesh firmness or “melting of the fruit” toward the end of ripening. No clear differences in flavor

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Larry E. Schrader, Jianguang Zhang, Jianshe Sun, Jizhong Xu, Don C. Elfving and Cindy Kahn

. Racskó et al. (2005a) reported that sunburn of apples increased flesh firmness, decreased water content, and increased soluble solids concentration. However, they did not indicate what type of sunburn they studied. They did indicate that plant cells

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Jin-Hu Wu, A. Ross Ferguson, Brian G. Murray, Alison M. Duffy, Yilin Jia, Canhong Cheng and Philip J. Martin

attributes. During fruit development, SSC at harvest is an indicator of fruit maturity, and DM content reflects the potential SSC at eating ripeness once starch reserves have been converted to sugar ( Burdon et al., 2004 ; Feng et al., 2011 ). Flesh firmness

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Paul M. Chen and Diane M. Varga

`D'Anjou' pears (Pyrus communis L.) harvested at commercial maturity and stored in air at 30 °F (-1 °C) for up to 7 weeks were still incapable of ripening normally at 68 °F (20 °C) for 7 days. `D'Anjou' fruit at this stage were termed as under-chilled fruit. Ziploc bags [1-gal (3.8-L)] perforated with a number of small holes [1/8 inches (0.32 cm) in diameter] were used to pack five `d'Anjou' pears and five `Bartlett' pears [a total net weight of 5 ± 0.2 lb (2.3 ± 0.1 kg)]. The mixed fruit packed in the same bags were placed into a room at 68 °F. When under-chilled `d'Anjou' fruit packed with `Bartlett' fruit in the bags perforated with 6, 8, or 10 holes, `Bartlett' fruit became fully ripe after 5 days while `d'Anjou' fruit were capable of ripening normally after 7 days at 68 °F. Ripened fruit of both pear cultivars developed high dessert quality. The concentration of ethylene in these bags accumulated to ≈50 ppm (mg·L-1) on day 4 while CO2 concentration did not increase to above 3% and O2 concentration maintained at 18%. Ethylene generated naturally by `Bartlett' pears during ripening at 68 °F and accumulated in the bag perforated with 6 to 10 holes was sufficient to induce the normal ripening activities of under-chilled `d'Anjou' pears. This packaging technology may be used to promote early marketing for both pear cultivars.

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Jesse Wimer, Debra Inglis and Carol Miles

al. (2004) observed a decrease in TSS as a result of grafting. In contrast, many researchers have observed positive effects on fruit yield and quality as a result of grafting, including increased lycopene content, flesh firmness, and fruit weight