( APHIS, 2012 ). Other research, designed to examine the effectiveness of HTFA treatment of oranges under commercial conditions, however, found there to be problems with HTFA-induced flavor changes (Mary Lu Arpaia, personal communication). In another study
David Obenland, Sue Collin, James Sievert and Mary Lu Arpaia
Elizabeth A. Baldwin, John W. Scott and Jinhe Bai
Dissatisfaction with the flavor of commercial tomato cultivars has been documented in the past ( Bruhn et al., 1991 ; Klee, 2010 ; Klee and Tieman, 2013 ; Tieman et al., 2012 ) and is still a subject of much attention. Some believe that
E.A. Baldwin, J.W. Scott, T.M. Malundo and R.L. Shewfelt
Sugars, acids, and flavor volatiles are components of flavor that have been measured instrumentally, revealing differences among tomato cultigens. For objective measurements to be useful, however, they need to relate to sensory data. In this study, objective and sensory analyses of tomato flavor were compared. Seven tomato cultigens were ranked for sweetness, sourness, and flavor and rated for overall acceptability by a panel of 32 experienced judges. Sucrose equivalents (SE), measured by HPLC, but not soluble solids correlated with sweetness at P = 0.10. In addition, SE highly correlated with flavor (P = 0.03), while titratable acidity (TA) negatively correlated with overall acceptability (P = 0.03). Regression analysis indicated that 2+3-methylbutanol, cis-3-hexenal, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one significantly contributed to flavor at a 5% level of significance. It is apparent from this study that sucrose equivalents are more meaningful than soluble solids for measurement of sweetness, and that certain flavor volatiles play a role in tomato flavor.
J. Kays and Wayne J. McLaurin
Flavor is a primary trait in the selection of foods. The role of flavor in acceptance of the sweetpotato, flavors status as a selection trait in existing breeding programs, and our current understanding of the flavor chemistry of the sweetpotato was reviewed. The sweetpotato, unlike most staple crops, has a very distinct and dominant flavor. In typical breeding programs, however, flavor is generally one of the last traits screened. A tremendous diversity and range of flavors has been reported within the sweetpotato germplasm (e.g., acidic, bland, baked potato, boiled potato. carrot, chalky, chemical, citrus, earthy, Ipomoeo/terpene, lemon, musty, pumpkin, salty, squash (titer type), starchy, sweet, sweetpotato (traditional), terpene, and turnip. These results indicate that the genetic diversity for flavor present in sweetpotato germplasm will allow making substantial changes in the flavor of new cultivars, thus potentially opening previously unexploited or under-exploited markets. Implementation involves solving two primary problems: 1) identification of desirable flavor ideotypes; and development of procedures that allow maximizing the selection of specific flavor types.
Dangyang Ke and Michael Boersig
Consumer acceptance of sensory quality was significantly correlated (P = 0.05) with overall eating quality of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) determined by a trained taste panel. The overall eating quality was partitioned into three flavor components (sweetness, sourness, and aroma) and internal texture. Relationships between the sensory flavor components and concentrations of several chemical compounds were analyzed in tomatoes of eleven varieties within a range of acceptable texture. Sweetness was significantly correlated with total sugar concentration and overall flavor at P = 0.01 and 0.001. High concentrations of two ketone volatiles (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one and 1-penten-3-one) were significantly correlated with aroma and overall flavor at P = 0.05 to 0.001. This study indicates that positive tomato flavor may be characterized by high sweetness, moderate acidity, and high concentrations of certain ketone volatiles.
Simona Pinnavaia, Emilio Senesi, Anne Plotto, Jan A. Narciso and Elizabeth A. Baldwin
, juice leakage, loss of texture, and off flavors caused by enzyme activity during storage were reported ( Baker and Bruemmer, 1989 ; Baker and Hagenmaier, 1995 ; Ismail et al., 2005 ; Senesi et al., 2003 ). Therefore, further studies compared vacuum
Alexander G. Litvin, Christopher J. Currey and Lester A. Wilson
), and parsley ( Petroselinum crispum ) are popular for their aroma and flavor attributes, nutritional value ( Brown, 1991 ), historic cultural value ( Cook and Samman, 1996 ; Justesen and Knuthsen, 2001 ), and ornamental appeal ( Morales and Simon, 1996
Mercy A. Olmstead, Jessica L. Gilbert, Thomas A. Colquhoun, David G. Clark, Robert Kluson and Howard R. Moskowitz
., 1999 ; Williamson and Sargent, 1999 ). The stone fruit breeding program in Florida has focused on the release of nonmelting texture peaches for fresh consumption, which allows fruit to remain on the tree longer and develop improved aroma and flavor
F. Dicenta, P. Martínez-Gómez, E. Ortega and H. Duval
The effect of pollinizer on sweet or bitter almond flavor was studied by tasting the seeds obtained from 32 crosses between sweet, bitter, and slightly bitter parents. Out of eight female parents, two were homozygous sweet (`Del Cid' and `Aï'); two were heterozygous sweet (`Marcona' and `Nonpareil'); one heterozygous with an almost undetectable slightly bitter flavor (`Ferrastar'); two heterozygous slightly bitter (`Garrigues' and `Marie Dupuy'); and one bitter homozygous (`S3067', self-compatible clone obtained in CEBAS). Each cultivar was hand-pollinated with four male cultivars: one homozygous sweet (`Ramillete'), one heterozygous sweet (`Atocha'), one heterozygous slightly bitter (`Garrigues'), and one homozygous (`S3067'). Since `Garrigues' is self-incompatible, the cross `Garrigues' × `Garrigues' was replaced by `Garrigues' × `S3065' (slightly bitter clone obtained in CEBAS). Tasting of the seeds resulting from each cross resulted in the complete absence of any influence of pollinizer on flavor, which only depended on the female parent.
Clara Pelayo-Zaldívar, Jameleddine Ben Abda, Susan E. Ebeler and Adel A. Kader
The quality of fresh fruits can be defined in terms of factors such as appearance, firmness, color, flavor, and nutritional value. Modified atmospheres (MA) containing 10–20 kPa CO 2 have been applied commercially for many years to reduce decay