Application method and placement can improve the efficiency of applied nitrogen (N) per unit of yield, potentially minimizing N loss and increasing the profit margin for pecan producers. The following treatments were evaluated for their effect on pecan leaf N concentration, pecan yield, nut quality, agronomic N use efficiency (AEN), and alternate bearing intensity (I); 1) emitter-adjacent application of liquid urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) (28N–0P–0K) with 5% sulfur (S); 2) broadcast application of dry ammonium nitrate (34N–0P–0K); 3) broadcast-band application of dry ammonium nitrate; 4) broadcast ground-spray application of liquid UAN; and 5) untreated control (2009–12). Leaf elemental tissue analysis, pecan yield, quality, and alternate bearing intensity indicate that pecans can be effectively fertilized with N using any of the application methods used in the current study. Based on AEN, it appears that pecans can be effectively fertilized at a lower field rate of N than is currently recommended and that the volume of fertilizer applied to pecan orchards can be significantly reduced by minimizing the area in the orchard to which N fertilizer is applied and eliminating excessive applications to vegetated row middles, which apparently offer little additional benefit to pecan leaf N, pecan quality, or yield.
M. Lenny Wells
Jim E. Wyatt, Don D. Tyler, Craig H. Canaday and Don D. Howard
This study compared conventional tillage (CT), strip tillage (ST), and no tillage (NT) cultures for effects on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit production. Within each tillage system, fertilization treatments were 60 lb/acre (67.2 kg·ha-1) of nitrogen (N) applied as potassium nitrate in four ways: a 2-ft-wide (0.6 m) strip over the row before transplanting, a 4-ft-wide (1.2-m) strip over the row before transplanting, N banded 6 inches (0.15 m) to the side and 4 inches (0.10 m) below the plant after transplanting, or applied through the drip irrigation system. A treatment of no fertilizer was included in the 1996 study but was discontinued in 1998 and 1999 because yields were low and this would not be a recommended practice in Tennessee. Tillage treatments had no effect on early small, medium, or large tomato yields. In 2 of the 3 years, either ST or CT treatments resulted in the highest total yields. Highest early yields were often produced by applying N in either 2-ft or 4-ft, strips over the row before transplanting. Highest late-season yields were obtained from plants receiving N applied as a band beside the row after transplanting. Results suggest that tomato yield under minimal tillage (ST or NT) was at least equivalent to CT in most years. When the economic benefits of minimal tillage are considered, these results imply that minimal tillage cultural practices are advantageous in tomato production.
David R. Bryla
other cropping systems. In this article, the utility of the concept is illustrated to discuss the importance of “right” fertilizer placement in horticulture. Proper fertilizer placement is an integral part of effective and appropriate crop nutrient
C.A. Sanchez, S. Swanson and P.S. Porter
Five field experiments were conducted from 1986 to 1989 to compare broadcast and band P fertilization of crisphead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) on Histosols. Rates of P were 0, 50, 100, 200, and 300 kg P/ha applied broadcast or banded. Broadcast P was surface-applied and disked into the soil 1 day before bedding and planting. Banded P was placed in strips 8 cm wide, 5 cm below the lettuce seeds at planting. Lettuce yields were significantly(P < 0.01) increased by P rate in all experiments. However, significant rate-by -placement interactions indicated that response of lettuce to P varied by placement. Lettuce yields were generally optimized with a band P rate one-third of that required with broadcast placement. Analysis of soil samples collected in the lettuce bed after fertilization indicated that banded P increased available P in the lettuce root zone compared to broadcast fertilization. Lettuce leaf P concentration increased with P rate and generally was greater when P was banded. The critical concentration of P in lettuce leaf tissue at the six- to eight-leaf stage was 0.37%. Banding P fertilizer did not reduce the availability of other essential nutrients, as indicated by tissue analysis.
John M. Swiader and William H. Shoemaker
Field studies were conducted in 1994 and 1995 to evaluate the effects of in-furrow-placed (i.e., applied directly in the seed channel) starter fertilizer on the emergence, maturity, and yield response of early sweet corn. In both years, three starter fertilizer treatments were applied: APP, with N and P at 13 and 19 kg·ha-1, respectively (13N—19P kg·ha-1), either banded (5 cm below and 5 cm to the side of the seed) or placed in-furrow, and a control (no starter fertilizer). Additionally, in 1995, the rate of APP was increased to supply 26N—38P kg·ha-1 in combination with either band (5 × 5 cm) or in-furrow placement. Seedling emergence was delayed whenever starter fertilizer was applied with the seed; however, significant reductions (≈21%) in plant stand occurred only at the high rate of in-furrow placement. In both years, all starter treatments had a positive effect on seedling dry-matter production, and hastened silking. In-furrow application of 13N—19P kg·ha-1 increased marketable ear yields 34% in 1995, but had no effect in 1994. Lack of yield response to the high rate of in-furrow fertilizer in 1995 was primarily a function of reduced stand, as ear number and ear mass per plant, and average ear size were similar to those in the other starter treatments. Based on these results, in-furrow APP at 13N—19P kg·ha-1 appears to be an effective starter fertilization regime for early sweet corn, comparable in effect to banded 26N—38P kg·ha-1. However, high rates of in-furrow APP may reduce stands. Although significant yield response to in-furrow starter fertilizer may not always be realized, the increased early seedling growth may itself be a benefit, since fast-growing seedlings are more likely to be tolerant of adverse environmental conditions than are less vigorous plants. Chemical name used: ammonium polyphosphate (APP).
Luther C. Carson and Monica Ozores-Hampton
This publication summarizes the factors influencing controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) nutrient release, CRF placement, CRF rate, and CRF application timing for the two major seepage-irrigated vegetable production systems (plasticulture and open-bed) in Florida. One of several best management practices for vegetable production, CRF helps growers achieve total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) established in Florida under the Federal Clean Water Act. Several factors intrinsic to CRF and to the vegetable production systems affect CRF nutrient release, making implementation of CRF fertility programs challenging. Increasing or decreasing soil temperature increases or decreases nutrient release from CRF. Soil moisture required for uninhibited plant growth is within the soil moisture range for optimum CRF nutrient release. CRF substrate affects nutrient release rate, which is inversely related to coating thickness and granule size. Soil microbes, soil texture, and soil pH do not influence nutrient release rate. Field placement of CRFs in seepage-irrigated, plasticulture, and open-bed production should be in the bottom mix at bed formation and soil incorporated or banded at planting, respectively. In plasticulture production systems, soil fumigation and delayed planting for continuous harvest may add a 14- to 21-day lag period between fertilization and planting, which along with different season lengths will influence CRF release length selected by growers. Using a hybrid fertilizer system in plasticulture production or incorporating CRF at planting in open-bed production allows for up to a 25% reduction in the nitrogen (N) rate needed.
Mohammed Z. Alam, Calvin Chong, Jennifer Llewellyn and Glen P. Lumis
.959. Among the three fertilizer placements (dibbled, incorporated, and topdressed) ( Fig. 2 ), dibble was superior to both incorporation and topdress, in this order, with single or split dose. With dibble single placement, maximum SDW of forsythia (70 g
Kelly T. Morgan, T.A. Obreza and J.M.S. Scholberg
concentrations within soil occupied by the crop root system is essential for optimal nutrient uptake ( Scholberg et al., 2002 ). Therefore, understanding the spatial distribution of fibrous roots is essential to ensure proper fertilizer placement, improve
Arthur Villordon, Don LaBonte, Nurit Firon and Edward Carey
subjected to different nitrogen (N) fertilizer placement treatments. Columns with different letters differ significantly at the 5% level by Fisher’s least significant difference. CONTROL = no fertilizer N added; BOTTOM = fertilizer N placed 4 cm from the
Kimberly A. Klock-Moore and Timothy K. Broschat
Growth of hand-watered and subirrigated `Ultra Red' petunia (Petunia ×hybrida Hort.) and `Super Elfin Violet' impatiens (Impatiens wallerana Hook.f.) plants were compared when grown using four controlled-release fertilizer rates and four fertilizer placements in the pot. Furthermore, the amount of NO3-N leached from hand-watered plants was compared to amount captured by subirrigation system. Before planting, Osmocote (14N-6.2P-11.6K) (4 month release) was either topdressed (TD), layered in the middle of the pot (M), layered at the bottom of the pot (B), or incorporated throughout (I) the substrate at 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5 kg·m-3 (oz/ft3). Shoot dry mass of petunia plants was similar between both irrigation systems and among the four fertilizer placements. Subirrigated petunias fertilized with 2.5 kg·m-3 had similar shoot dry mass as hand-watered petunias fertilized with 7.5 kg·m-3. Hand-watered impatiens had greater shoot dry mass than subirrigated impatiens. Hand-watered impatiens also had greater shoot dry mass in pots with fertilizer at TD, M, or I than with fertilizer at B, but no difference in growth was observed in subirrigated impatiens among the different fertilizer placements. Finally, significantly more NO3-N was leached from hand-watered plants than was captured with the subirrigation systems.