: soil amended with 5% or 10% (v/v) vermicompost. Fig. 6. Effect of vermicompost on spinach leaf photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ; A ), photochemical yield [Y(II); B ], and electron transport rate (ETR; C ) 35 d after transplanting. The values are
(Vc max ), rate of photosynthetic electron transport [ J (based on NADPH requirement)], TPU, light respiration ( R l ), and mesophyll conductance ( g m ) were obtained by fitting data to the model described by Sharkey et al. (2007) . In light
; Konica Minolta Sensing, Tokyo, Japan). Leaf maximum photochemical efficiency (F v /F m ), photochemical yield [Y(II)] and electron transport rate (ETR) were measured with a fluorometer (MINI-PAM-II; Heinz Walz, Effeltrich, Germany) on the four largest
mean ± se (n = 3). Table 5. Maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax ), maximum rate of electron transport at saturating irradiance (J max ), and CO 2 compensation point (CCP) of tung tree seedlings grown under different light treatments. Leaf anatomic
Portable chlorophyll fluorometers have made it possible to evaluate the photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem 11 for vegetable crops under ambient conditions. A sampling protocol was first established to eliminate variability due to positioning of the fiber optics in relation to the leaf, leaf selection, and natural environmental variability. Fluorescence parameters of the quantum yield of noncyclic electron transport (DF/Fm') and electron transport rate (ETR) were taken from several economically important vegetables under ambient conditions between 11 and 14 h. The objective of the second part of the study was to conduct in situ chlorophyll fluorescence and biomass determinations as affected by salt stress and N deficiency. DF/Fm' and ETR were studied in rhizobium inoculated, noninoculated and inorganic N-fed soybean and differences in fluorescence were related to yield. The influence that salt stress, and several N rates have on fluorescence photochemical quenching (qP) and nonphotochemical quenching (qN), NPQ ([Fm-Fm']/Fm'), DF/Fm' and ETR for hydroponically grown lettuce will also be presented.
Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and CO2 assimilation in response to photon flux density (PFD) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) were monitored simultaneously in leaves of apple, pear, apricot, and cherry with a combined system for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange. When photorespiration was minimized by low O2 (2%) and saturated CO2 (1300 ppm), a linear relationship was found between PSII efficiency and the quantum yield for CO2 assimilation with altering PFD, indicating CO2 assimilation in this case is closely linked to PSII activity. As PFD increased from 80 to 1900 μmol·m–2·s–1 under ambient CO2 (350 ppm) and O2 (21%) conditions, PSII efficiency decreased by increased nonphotochemical quenching and decreased concentration of open PSII reaction centers. The rate of linear electron transport showed a similar response to PFD as CO2 assimilation. As Ci increased from 50 to 1000 ppm under saturating PFD (1000 μmol·m–2·s–1) and ambient O2, PSII efficiency was increased initially by decreased nonphotochemical quenching and increased concentration of open PSII reaction centers and then leveled off with further a rise in Ci. CO2 assimilation reached a plateau at a higher Ci than PSII efficiency because increasing Ci diverted electron flow from O2 reduction to CO2 assimilation by depressing photorespiration. It is concluded that PSII efficiency is regulated by both nonphotochemical quenching and concentration of open PSII reaction centers in response to light and CO2 to meet the requirement for photosynthetic electron transport.
Mitochondria isolated from the pericarp tissue of green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruit and purified on a Percoll gradient produced superoxide in buffers aerated with oxygen. ADP and uncouplers of the electron transport chain reduced superoxide production. Disulfiram, an inhibitor of the alternative oxidase, enhanced superoxide production. Inhibitors of the ubiquinone-cytochrome bc1 complex had little effect on superoxide production by mitochondria which were insensitive to cyanide. Less superoxide was produced when DTT was used to reduce the sulfhydryl groups of the alternative oxidase protein and the enzyme was activated with pyruvate than when the sulfhydryl groups were oxidized with diamide. A role for the alternative oxidase in limiting the level of reactive oxygen species produced in stressed and senescing plant tissues is suggested.
A process-based whole-tree simulation model was used to simulate crown transpiration in several species and cultivars of nursery crops. To validate estimates, we measured transpiration in cultivars of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) to determine if there were differences in intraspecific variation that could affect estimates of whole tree water use. We used a combination of field and published data to parameterize additional species and cultivar differences in response to environment and/or management. The different water use estimates of the species and cultivars were related to their genetic variability in leaf biochemical limitations, where the relationship between stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate may be so closely matched that stomatal conductance appears to adjust itself to the photosynthetic capacity of the species or cultivar. Model predictions indicated that species and cultivars that had higher biochemical limitation regulated transpiration by down regulation of the rate of carboxylation (Vcmax) and coupled photosynthetic electron transport (Jmax), whereas the reverse occurred as Vcmax and Jmax increased. Our model simulations show significant variation in transpiration due to both inter and intraspecific variation in biochemical limitations. These results suggest that models that do not account for inter and intraspecific variation, to reflect genetic variation in physiology, may over or under estimate transpiration. Therefore, physiology-based species and cultivar variation should be part of process-based simulations that assess nursery water use. Results also suggest that effects of leaf dark respiration adaptation interactions can concurrently reduce variation in water use estimates.
Paclobutrazol applied as a soil drench at 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 μg a.i./g soil reduced photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate of leaves formed before paclobutrazol treatment within 3 to 5 days of treatment and the reductions were maintained for 15 days after treatment. The percentage of recently assimilated 14C exported from the source leaf was reduced only at the highest paclobutrazol dose, and there was little effect of treatment on the partitioning of exported 14C between the various sinks. In response to increasing doses of paclobutrazol, particularly at the higher doses, an increasing proportion of recent photoassimilates was maintained in a soluble form in all plant components. Reduced demand for photoassimilates as a result of the inhibition of vegetative growth may have contributed to a reduction in photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate, but this reduction in photosynthesis rate could not be attributed to a feedback inhibition caused by a buildup of starch in the leaves. Paclobutrazol had only a minor effect, if any, on photosynthetic electron transport. Chemical name used: β-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).
Short-term fumigation with 1% methanol in air was carried out to investigate effects on the photosynthetic apparatus of horticultural species characterized by leaves with different stomatal distribution. Methanol decreased the photosynthetic capacity of all species. The hypostomatous cherry (Prunus avium L.) was the most sensitive species. Between the two amphistomatous species, the effect was smaller in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) than in melon (Cucumis melo L.). A 4-minute fumigation caused a stronger inhibition of photosynthesis than a 90-second fumigation. The time course of the inhibition of the photosynthetic electron transport following a methanol fumigation of cherry leaves suggests that methanol starts inhibiting photosynthesis and photorespiration after ≈60 seconds and that the effect is complete after 180 seconds. This inhibition is not permanent, however, since gas-exchange properties recovered within 24 hours. Methanol vapor effects were greatest when leaves were fumigated on the surfaces with stomata. However, fumigation with methanol does not affect stomatal conductance. Therefore, inhibition of photosynthesis following methanol fumigation can be attributed to a temporary inhibition of biochemical reactions.