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Amanda Bayer, John Ruter and Marc W. van Iersel

not be able to be increased if there is not enough space available and can increase overall production costs. Deficit irrigation or drought stress can also limit elongation; however, many growers are reluctant to expose their plants to drought stress

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Azadeh Behrooz, Kourosh Vahdati, Farhad Rejali, Mahmoud Lotfi, Saadat Sarikhani and Charles Leslie

production and growth are affected severely by drought stress ( Vahdati et al., 2009 ). In recent years, climate change has increased temperatures and altered precipitation regimes, which has led to an increase of drought stress in many areas, and therefore a

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Hongmei Du, Zhaolong Wang, Wenjuan Yu and Bingru Huang

Water stress is one of the most widespread abiotic stresses limiting plant growth in many areas in the world ( Neill et al., 2008 ). Drought stress affects numerous metabolic processes in plants, including synthesis of primary metabolites such as

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Zhimin Yang, Lixin Xu, Jingjin Yu, Michelle DaCosta and Bingru Huang

Drought stress can be detrimental to the growth of annual and perennial plant species. For annual crops, the maintenance of yield production during drought is important, but for perennial grasses used as turfgrass or forage grasses, the ability of

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Yiwei Jiang, Eric Watkins, Shuwei Liu, Xiaoqing Yu and Na Luo

junegrass would be beneficial for germplasm improvement efforts with this species. Antioxidant metabolism can play an important role in plant response to drought stress ( Umezawa et al., 2006 ). Drought stress promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen

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Sebastiano Delfine, Francesco Loreto and Arturo Alvino

Physiological characteristics, growth, and biomass production of rainfed and irrigated bell pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. anuum (Grossum Group) `Quadrato d'Asti'] plants were measured in the semiarid conditions of a Mediterranean summer to determine if drought stress effects are transient and do not affect plant growth and crop yield or are persistent and adversely affect plant growth and crop yield. A low midday leaf water potential indicated the occurrence of transient drought stress episodes in rainfed plants during the first 2 months of the study. Later on, predawn water potential also increased, indicating a persistent drought stress condition despite the occurrence of some rainfall. Photosynthesis was reduced when stress conditions developed, but the reduction was transient and limited to the central part of the day during the first 2 months. As plants aged, however, the impact of drought stress on photosynthesis was not relieved during the overnight recovery period. Stomatal conductance was reduced both during transient and permanent stress conditions while CO2 transfer conductance (i.e., conductance to CO2 inside the leaf) was only reduced when photosynthesis inhibition was unrecoverable. However, chloroplast CO2 concentration was higher in rainfed than in irrigated leaves indicating that CO2 availability was not limiting photosynthesis. Nonphotochemical quenching of fluorescence increased significantly in rainfed leaves exposed to permanent stress indicating the likely impairment of ATP synthesis. Transient inhibition of photosynthesis did not significantly affect leaf area index and biomass production, but growth was significantly reduced when photosynthesis was permanently inhibited. Fruit dry weight was even higher in rainfed plants compared to irrigated plants until drought stress and photosynthesis reduction became permanent. It is suggested that bell pepper growth without supplemental irrigation over the first part of the vegetative cycle does not impair plant growth and may even be useful to improve yield of early fruit.

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Alexander G. Litvin, Marc W. van Iersel and Anish Malladi

et al., 2003 ), and water shortages reduce agricultural yields globally ( Greenwood et al., 2010 ). A better understanding of drought stress effects on plant growth and development is needed to improve our understanding of how climate change may

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Lu Gan, Xunzhong Zhang, Silu Liu and Shuxia Yin

important turfgrass for sports fields and lawns, it usually requires intensive management and a large amount of water ( Warnke, 2003 ). Thus, drought stress seriously affects TQ and the service life of the lawn. Moreover, frequent low mowing causes a series

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Xinjing Qu, Hui Wang, Ming Chen, Jiao Liao, Jun Yuan and Genhua Niu

al., 2016 ). The planting area of oil tea has reached 4 million hectares, which is widely distributed in 14 provinces in southern China, mostly in Hunan, Guangxi, and Jiangxi ( Li et al., 2012 ). Drought stress is one of the main environmental factors

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Nisa Leksungnoen, Paul G. Johnson and Roger K. Kjelgren

landscape plants, particularly turfgrass. Additionally, high temperatures and low humidity can increase drought stress on plants when irrigation is insufficient. Drought tolerance refers to the ability to experience and undergo drought stress but survive