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The widespread use and disposal of plastics are associated with significant environmental impacts, such as accumulation in landfills and the natural environment, and threats to wildlife via entanglement and ingestion ( Thompson et al., 2009a , 2009

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to the nursery. The shrub would be transported to the landscape with a light truck and trailer as part of a 50-plant load traveling 32 km. After 50 years of useful life, removal and disposal of the shrub after a 50-year useful life would require 0.5 h

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economic perspective, BDM purchase cost is greater than PE mulch; however, BDM is tilled into soil, saving on removal and disposal costs, and thus BDM can be more economical overall than PE mulch ( Velandia et al. 2020 ). The replacement of PE mulches with

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, positive impact on atmospheric GHG. The life cycle GWP of the described redbud tree, including GHG emissions during production, transport, transplanting, take-down, and disposal, would be a negative 63 kg CO 2 e ( Ingram et al., 2012 ). These data can be

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economic means of disposal. However, pruned wood is increasingly chipped and incorporated into the soil as an environmentally viable method of handling the waste. Although more expensive than burning, chipping and soil incorporation avoid burning controls

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and disposal of used plastic. Removal and disposal of used plastic can cost $250/ha ( Shogren, 2000 ). Several alternatives to reduce this cost have been evaluated by research teams throughout the world. Strategies have varied from the development of

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, and use but ends with the impact of that product at the end of its useful life through recycling or disposal. Most published LCAs have focused on carbon footprint, but the tool can be used to assess other environmental impacts such as water footprint

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Briassoulis, 2007 ; Steinmetz et al., 2016 ). PE mulch made from nonrenewable, petroleum-based feedstock is typically used for only one growing season before disposal ( Goldberger et al., 2015 ). The use of plastic mulches in agriculture has increased

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the development of water use restrictions and decreases in permitted water use for agriculture. Increased use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation would not only reduce the wastewater disposal problem for urban areas, but could also reduce

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Abstract

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance and is in the process of preparing and issuing regulations on land disposal and utilization of solid wastes and sewage sludge.

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