commercial nursery operations. The objective of this study was to investigate the phytotoxic responses and critical free chlorine threshold of five container-grown nursery liners to chlorinated irrigation water applied daily. Materials and Methods
Diane Feliciano Cayanan, Youbin Zheng, Ping Zhang, Tom Graham, Mike Dixon, Calvin Chong and Jennifer Llewellyn
Carolyn F. Scagel, Richard P. Regan, Rita Hummel and Guihong Bi
in N and C export, import, or metabolism and differences in C/N ratios were used to assess the magnitude of loss and accumulation when concurrent changes in C and N concentrations occurred. Biomass of old stems on container-grown deciduous and
Lesley A. Judd, Brian E. Jackson, William C. Fonteno and Jean-Christophe Domec
container-grown herbaceous and semiwoody plants using the HCFM; 2) investigate possible correlations between hydraulic conductivity and anatomical features, including whole root mass and plant stem diameter, and 3) investigate the potential influence of
Raul I. Cabrera, Richard Y. Evans and J. L. Paul
Nitrogen leaching losses of 21, 40 and 49% were measured from container-grown `Royalty' roses irrigated for one year with nutrient solutions containing 77, 154 and 231 mg N/l. There were no significant differences in number of flowers per plant or dry matter per plant. The N present in the harvested flowers accounted for 43, 27 and 17% of the N applied for the 77, 154 and 231 mg N/l treatments, respectively.
Plants receiving 154 mg N/l at leaching fractions of 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 had corresponding N leaching losses of 22, 38 and 56%. In this experiment, however, the 0.5 leaching fraction produced yields significantly higher than those of the 0.1 and 0.25 treatments. The N recovered in the harvested flowers accounted for 28, 25 and 19% of that applied to the 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 treatments, respectively.
The results of these studies suggest that modifications in current irrigation and fertilization practices of greenhouse roses would result in a considerable reduction of N leaching losses and enhance N fertilizer use efficiency, without loss of cut flower yield and quality.
Four granular formulations of preemergence herbicides-oxadiazon, oxadiazon in combination with simazine, dichlobenil, and oxyfluorfen + oryzalin-were evaluated for weed control and phytotoxic effects on 10 species of container-grown Australian rain forest plants. Herbicides were applied at half and at one and two times the manufacturer's recommended rate. Oxyfluorfen + oryzalin, oxadiazon, and oxadiazon + simazine controlled all weed species at half the recommended rates (1.0 + 0.5, 2.0, and 2.0 + 0.5 kg·ha-1, respectively) with no phytotoxic effects after 10 weeks to nine of the 10 rain forest species tested: broad-leafed lilly-pilly [Acmena hemilampra (F. Muell. ex Bailey) Merr. and Perry], red ash [Alphitonia excelsa (Cunn. ex Fenzl) Reisseck ex Benth.], rusty bean [Dysoxylum rufum (A. Rich.) Benth.], macaranga [Macaranga tanarius (L.) Muell. Arg.], fibrous satinash [Syzygium fibrosum (Bailey) T. Hartley and Perry], Queensland golden myrtle [Metrosideros queenslandica L.S. Smith], cluster fig [Ficus racemosa L.], corduroy tamarind [Arytera lautereriana (Bailey) Radlk.], and celerywood [Polyscias elegans (F. Muell and C. Moore) Harms]. Dichlobenil depressed plant growth of red ash and failed to control bittercress (Cardamine hirsuta L.) and green amaranth (Amaranthus viridus L.), even at twice the recommended rate (4.0 kg·ha-1). All herbicides applied at half the recommended rates produced minor to moderate plant injury within 5 weeks of the first application to corduroy tamarind and northern silky oak [Cardwellia sublimis F. Muell.]. A second application 10 weeks after the first caused no significant plant injury to corduroy tamarind but resulted in severe plant injury to northern silky oak. This finding validates the previously reported sensitivity of Proteaceous spp. to preemergence herbicides. Chemical names used: (2-tert-butyl-4-(2,4-dichloro-5-isopropoxyphenyl)-Δ2-1,3,4 oxadiazoline-5-one) (oxadiazon); (2-chloro-4,6-bisethylamino-1,3,5-triazine) (simazine); 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil); 2-chloro-1-(3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (oxyfluorfen); and 3,5-dinitro-N4,N4 -dipropylsulfanilamide (oryzalin).
Susmitha Nambuthiri, Ethan Hagen, Amy Fulcher and Robert Geneve
estimate water use in container-grown nursery crops by using a modification of the Penman–Monteith equation ( Bacci et al., 2008 ; Beeson and Brooks, 2008 ; Niu et al., 2006 ). The models are based on meteorological data and plant-related characteristics
Gabriele Amoroso, Piero Frangi, Riccardo Piatti, Alessio Fini and Francesco Ferrini
control, and non-mulched non-treated control), irrigation regime (IR) (normal irrigation and reduced water), and hand weeding (HW) on shoot dry weight of 3-L (0.8 gal) container-grown giant arborvitae and weeds at the end of the 2008 and 2009 experiments
Carolyn F. Scagel, Guihong Bi, Leslie H. Fuchigami and Richard P. Regan
The production of high-quality container-grown nursery plants requires adequate nutrients and water during production. Negative growth responses to excess N can occur from increased salinity, disruption of the balance between N and other nutrients
Aaron L. Warsaw, R. Thomas Fernandez, Bert M. Cregg and Jeffrey A. Andresen
, scientific information regarding the water use of the thousands of species and cultivars of woody ornamentals currently grown is limited. One way to measure DWU of container-grown plants is by using soil moisture sensors ( Cornejo et al., 2005 ; Garcia y
Julián Miralles-Crespo and Marc W. van Iersel
information as the automated irrigation system described by Nemali and van Iersel (2006) . To assess the potential of such irrigation control for use with container-grown plants, the accuracy and performance of the sensors, controller, and irrigation system